Ismail Haniyeh( Prime Minister of the Palestinian Authority)
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Biography Ismail Haniyeh
Ismail Haniya, according to various sources, was born in 1962 or 1963 in a Palestinian refugee camp of Shati 'in Gaza. His parents fled the city of Jura in the south of Israel during the Arab-Israeli war of 1948. In the Gaza Strip, the family lived on the monthly payments to UN Agencies for Palestine Refugees. In 1983, Mr Haniya joined the Islamic University of Gaza, where he studied Arabic literature. The University Haniya joined the Islamic student bloc, which served as one of the basic organizations for the establishment of Hamas (Islamic Resistance Movement ") and became a student wing of the new movement. In 1987, Haniyeh graduated from Islamic University of Gaza, received a bachelor's degree.
While studying Haniyeh was a student council of the Islamic University of Gaza and led the council in 1985-1986. As a student, Haniyeh became a close assistant to the founder and spiritual leader of Hamas Sheikh Ahmed Yassin.
After graduating from the University Haniyeh participated in the Palestinian intifada that began in December 1987. For participation in anti-Israeli statements, in 1987, Haniyeh was arrested for 18 days. In 1988, Israeli authorities arrested him already for six months, and in 1989 - was jailed for three years. In December 1992, Mr Haniya was deported to southern Lebanon. Simultaneously, the Israeli government expelled more than 400 other activists of the Palestinian intifada, including Hamas leaders Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi and Mahmoud Zahar. In 1993, Mr Haniya returned to the Palestinian territories and became dean of the Islamic University of Gaza. In 1998 he headed the office of Sheikh Yassin.
In the early 2000-ies Haniyeh became one of the leaders of Hamas. In September 2003, he was slightly wounded when Israeli aircraft carried out a surgical strike on a building in Gaza, where the Sheikh Yassin. Haniya and Yassin had to leave the house shortly before the bombing, heard the sound of approaching aircraft.
. After the destruction of Sheikh Yassin and his successor, al-Rantissi in 2004, Mr Haniya, according to information from sources in Hamas, entered the collective leadership of the movement
. The name of the new leader of Hamas was not labeled to avoid assassination attempt. Haniyeh gained a reputation as a skilled negotiator, a pragmatist and a supporter of moderate flow to Hamas. He became a bridge between Hamas and the ruling Palestinian movement Fatah. Unlike many other leaders of Hamas, Haniyeh avoided public calls for Israel's destruction.
In December 2005, headed by Haniyeh, Hamas' electoral list in the elections to the Legislative Assembly of the Palestinian Authority. After Hamas' election victory, . held in early 2006, . Haniyeh became the Palestinian prime minister and formed a new government, . which included only the representatives of Hamas, . because the Palestinian movements have failed to agree on the terms of the coalition agreement.,
. Although Hamas is still not formally recognized Israel's right to exist, Haniyeh appeared for the beginning of the Palestinian-Israeli negotiations on the long-term truce if Israeli forces would withdraw from the occupied territories in 1967
. Israel, for its part, as the leading Western powers, the Government legitimate Haniyeh did not recognize. Western countries have imposed the embargo on aid to Palestine, which has become a serious impediment to the efficient operation of the new government.
During 2006 there were violent clashes between supporters of Fatah and Hamas. Attempts of talks on forming a coalition government have been fruitless and December was marked by escalating violence. December 14 occurred unsuccessful attempt on Haniyeh. Unidentified persons fired at his motorcade, one of the premier guards was killed and two escorts, including Haniyeh's son, were injured. Prime Minister himself survived. The responsibility for what happened Hamas officials have conferred on their opponents from Fatah. December 16, 2006 the leader of Fatah, Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas called for early parliamentary and presidential elections. Hamas is regarded as a call for a constitutional coup, and violence in the Palestinian territories continued.
. In February 2007, Abbas and Hamas political leader Khaled Meshal signed the Mecca agreement, which began work in March, the new Government of national concord
. The coalition includes representatives of Hamas, Fatah and other forces, Haniyeh retained the post of prime minister. The reconciliation was short-lived - in the spring of 2007 renewed armed clashes between militants of Hamas and Fatah. In April-May, the government in the Gaza Strip have created new security forces, Hamas-controlled. This move led to a new spiral of tension - Abbas sent to the region loyal to Fatah police force.
In June 2007, armed opposition Fatah and Hamas has passed the phase of the civil war. Hamas took control of Gaza and Abbas' supporters held the west bank of the Jordan. Decree Abbas Haniyeh coalition government was dissolved on 17 June, the President swore in the new cabinet, chaired by Salam Fayyad. Proponents of the legitimacy of the Hamas government did not recognize Fayyad, and Mr Haniya's office continued its work.