Diane Arbus (Diane Arbus)( Photographer)
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Biography Diane Arbus (Diane Arbus)
Perhaps, it is difficult to find in the history of world photography personality of the more controversial, tragic, so different from anybody else. Her adored and cursing, someone to imitate, someone is trying every effort to avoid. Some may consider her photos for hours, others try to quickly shut the album. One thing is clear - creativity Diane Arbus (Diane Arbus) few people indifferent.
She was born March 14, 1923 into a wealthy Jewish family in New York, where her grandfather Meyer Nemerow once came from distant Russia. By this change of location prompted his obstinate nature and love - by refusing to marry him selected for the Jewish girl he left home and married his sweetheart.
. Diana's childhood passed without any excesses and turmoil, even opposite - the girl felt too sheltered from any outside influences: "I suffered from a lack of anything standing in overcoming '- she recalled later
. Perhaps that is why her little interested in everything that was given to easy - so the researchers believe, she did not paint "because it was for her too easy '. 'I thought that if I do something very good - this deal is not worth it, and I did not feel any sense in an effort to do this' - she said.
In 1937, she fell in love with Allan Arbus working in a shop of her father. Almost immediately 13-year-old girl announced to parents that is going to marry - of course they were against, and tried hard to separate lovers. But Diana has shown that she is worthy of his Russian grandfather - she was barely eighteen, defying the will of the parents, she still came out for his beloved married. The girl, as it should be, took her husband's surname, which she glorified. However, before that it was still far off.
To feed his family Allan Arbus had to abandon the child dream - to become an actor, but instead the young man continued to act as the seller, in parallel laboring photographer. It was shortly after the wedding, he gave the young wife of the first in her life, a camera and he also taught her how to use the gift - to teach himself to photography school for military signalers, . Allan shared the evening with Diana wisdoms learned that day.,
. In 1946 the couple opened a studio fashion photography under the proud name 'Diane and Allan Arbus' ( 'Diane & Allan Arbus')
. Responsibilities were divided between the partners as follows: Diane served as art director and stylist, Allan was responsible for all technical aspects of shooting. He pressed the 'Start' and then showed a film and print photos. Outwardly, everything seemed fine, but later, Allan told me that very rarely the result of liked them both. They were very different and that one suit, it seemed inappropriate to another.
Usually those years writing about how boring and extremely unproductive in the creative plan period in the life of Diana Arbus. This is not quite so. The studio was very successful, both spouses have proved excellent photographers - Richard Avedon had a high opinion of their work, Edward Steyhen including one of their tracks in the famous exhibition in 1955 'human race' ( 'The Family of Man'). But neither Diana found herself in the world of advertising and fashion - and it follows from the future 'that was not her'.
All the 1950's she was busy 'finding themselves'. In 1951 she and her husband closed the studio and a year went to Europe. Diana tried to find a teacher - in the late 1940's it for some time engaged with Berenice Abbott, after returning from Europe - with Alexei Brodovitch, but the lessons of these great masters have not found a response in her heart. Finally, in 1956, held its first session with Lisette Model.
This name today undeservedly forgotten. Usually about her recall when told of her talented and famous disciples: Bruce Weber, Eva RUBINSTEIN, Diane Arbus, and many, many others. But the model was not only an excellent teacher, but also a talented craftsman who left a mark in the history of photography. "Lisette Model - one of the most prominent photographers of our time. Her fingerprints kept constant search of reality among the people, their weaknesses, stupidity, suffering, and sometimes - their greatness' - spoke of her Edward Steyhen.
Model proved to his pupil a striking effect. 'Diana took three sessions with her to become a photographer' - told stunned Allan. The same notice and other scholars of her work - photos Arbus changed overnight. From the photographer of the fashion and advertising, it became a Diane Arbus, which we know today. 'Three months later she had got its own style. First, only the grain and two-tone. Then - perfection '- proudly told Lisette Model on its pupil.
Since 1956, Diane and Allan began to work separately, and in 1959 their marriage ended. They continued to remain friends and only officially divorced after 10 years, when Allen wanted to marry a second time. Diana continued to use the services of laboratory technicians studio - she always hated to show the film, and printed only as needed and without much enthusiasm. Former spouse was in charge of its finances and watched the serviceability of its photo equipment. In other words, in this part of her life has changed little.
Significantly changed the spectrum of photographic interests - it is not laborious, but the quiet work in the studio, now Diana interested in reality - in its understanding of the word. She is not trying to impress the world, as did, say, Henri Cartier-Bresson and Eugene Smith. Rather, it can be compared with August Sander also formed a group portrait of the German people or Ralph Eugene Mityardom able to show the atmosphere of mystery surrounding a boring daily life of its neighbors. But here the similarities will be incomplete.
Diane Arbus hours walking the streets looking for the heroes of their future photos. She sought them among the various sectors of society, very often come out on the 'margins' of society, looking for people physically or mentally dissimilar to other. 'I often took pictures of freaks', - she recalled, - 'This is - my first photographic experiments and they were very exciting'. And further: 'Most people go through life dreading traumatic experience. And the monsters are born with the trauma. They have already passed the vital test. They - the aristocrats'.
However, we can say that her characters were only 'freaks' - rather it is part of the legend took shape after her death. Many famous photographs of her - 'Girls-twins', 'Young Brooklyn Family at Sunday's walk', 'A boy with a toy grenade in his hand' - portraits of ordinary people in the most ordinary situations. Unusually there was only: photographer: 'Instead of putting in order his [the subject - AV], I navozhu order in itself' - it revealed what the secret of his success.
Bringing order in itself often takes time. Thus, a boy with a grenade, she asked to stand still, and she was running around with a camera searching for the right angle. 'Take off at last! "- In the end the child cried, exhausted and this is a painful attempt to concentrate was filled with the usual in general frame of explosive force. Before you take pictures glotatelnitsu swords Sandra Reed Arbus several hours talking with her. Yes, and the process of shooting took 45 minutes, but the results of the cost! In some cases, it tried to provoke a model that could - as some have claimed her biographers - even sleep with the hero of the future image. It gave some students a reason to assert that people are interested in her more than photos. However, this contradicts the fact that we know about her and her own admission. 'I never chose their models on the basis of what they could mean for me, if I thought about them' - said Diana. She could spend an interesting model for an arbitrarily long time, she was genuinely interested and concerned about - but only until the end of the photo shoot.
Absolutely unique ability Arbus creep into the confidence of his 'victim'. Complete strangers allowed her to his home, she revealed her soul, revealed to her physically and spiritually. A good example of such exposure - the famous picture 'Nude man portraying a woman'. Diana noticed it in women's clothes in the park, met with him and photographed, then they went to his house and she photographed him again - in clothes, underwear, and finally - no linen and fluffy wig.
. Diana felt that it was the camera reveals her all the doors
. 'If I was just curious, for me it would be very difficult to approach someone and say: "I want you to invite me home and told all about me". "You're crazy" - I heard in response. They would be extremely alert. But the camera - a sort of badge '.
After separating from her husband Diane Arbus earned a living by selling photographs and photo reports in various periodicals. Her works have appeared in such popular magazines as Harper's Bazaar, New York Times, Esquire, Herald Tribune and many other. Results from late 1950 until her death in 1971, was published nearly 300 journal articles illustrated by her photos. Diana was one of the few reporters who managed to get magazines to take their own style and vision.
. New works of Diane Arbus - and it may be better to say of the new Diane Arbus - a truly explosive force of impact and can be quickly brought to her attention of the general public and art critics
. In 1963 and 1966, she received grants to the Guggenheim Museum to work on projects 'American Experience' ( 'The American Experience'), 'The American rituals, customs and traditions' ( 'American Rites, Manners and Customs') gave her relative freedom. In 1967, John Zarkovsky organized an exhibition of 'New Documents' ( 'New Documents') in the New York Museum of Modern Art where the work on which 30 pictures of Diana were exhibited together with works of Harry Vinogranda and Lee Friedlander. After the exhibition, all the participants became famous overnight - but those were Diane Arbus. She lit up with new plans and ideas. 'She wondered just 30 projects' - recalled Allan Arbus. One of these projects - a portfolio of 10 of the best pictures - Diana released in 1970. Despite the limited edition, this edition cemented her status pioneer a new photo.
. By the time of his death in 1971, Diane Arbus was one of the most famous and popular photographers of America - and at the same time very sick and unhappy
. At the end of 1960 after suffering a hepatitis tormented her bouts of depression and terrible headaches. Times, swallowing pills, it felt good - but then seemed to wave a magic wand sinister energy and desire to work disappeared, she felt exhausted and disappointed. According to her diaries and recollections of relatives in such a bifurcated state Diana had at least two or three last year.
. In the early 1970's a great French photographer Henri Cartier-Bresson for several days came to Leningrad
. During his meeting with Soviet colleagues, one of them asked the distinguished guests, whether contemporary photographers, which the maestro could make. Cartier-Bresson answered in the affirmative: 'The American, a young woman named Diane Arbus. She recently committed suicide '.
Unknown heard whether Cartier-Bresson to Diane until 1971 - for truly she became famous only after suicide. In 1972, her work exhibited at the Venice Biennale. In the same year retrospective exhibition of her photographs in museums around the U.S. and Canada, brings together more than seven million viewers. Next year the exhibition has crossed the ocean and has collected several millions of admirers of Arbus in Europe and Asia. In 1972 he released an album of photographs, which went through more than 10 reprints. She is devoting its study art, face new photo books, about her and her creative writing books, shoot documentaries and feature films.
. Much attention is paid to suicide Diane Arbus - at this moment like a long time to stop all her biographers
. Recall that, Lisette Model back in the 1950's suggested that her best student suffered a type of schizophrenia. Analyze the latest entry in his diary, letters, conversations with friends. The story of her suicide has acquired many legends: even tell that after a large dose of barbiturates and opening veins, she photographed the various stages of the process of its extinction. Is this - we hardly ever know. And whether you want?
Author: Andrew Vysokov