Yablochkin Alexander( Actress, People's Artist of USSR)
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Biography Yablochkin Alexander
Alexandra Yablochkina was born November 15, 1866 in St. Petersburg in the family of the famous actor and director Alexander Yablochkina. Here's how recalled childhood itself actress: 'On the very early childhood I have vague memories preserved. His father, friendly and very kind, very much like us, children, my brother Vladimir, me and my sister Anna. There was, however, extremely quick-tempered, and when, flared up, we kids were hiding at random, not daring to breathe. When his anger took place (and it was very soon after the outbreak), he did not know how to caress us, and filled with sweets and toys. They spoiled us and the children of his first wife the father: they were almost the same age of our mother and us kids, always treated with great love.
There are many bright memories associated with my mother, beautiful, kind, always smooth and soft. Her politeness, tact and self-mastery is not just caused my admiration, and when I was older - and a desire to imitate her in everything.
. I remember when I first tried in the life 'theatricalize' impressions: imitated the postures of the heroes of the Bible, tried to copy their unusual costumes with the help of all that was available in the locker room mother
. Dressed up and looking in the mirror, 'play'. "
Summer family, usually held in Pavlovsk. Often they visited the famous Glikeriya Fedotova. By the way, with Glikeriya Nikolaevna was connected first impression of the future actress from the theater. Little Sasha really wanted to see Fedotov on stage, and she begged to take her to the theater. In the end, parents took her to the theater at Pavlovsky 'Madness of Love'. To the dismay of his relatives, in the scene when Fedotova was going crazy, she began to weep and cry aloud for the entire theater: 'sorry, sorry Glikeriya Nikolaevna! ". Petite taken out of the auditorium and took him to the bathroom to Fedotova, which barely managed to explain that she just seemed crazy, but actually quite well.
. The very same Alexander for the first time came on the scene at 6 years in Tiflis, where he worked for his father
. Large family friend About. A. Prav put 'spoiled life', where the boy was the role of Peter, and directed by Sasha. At the premiere, however, came an incident. At the podium, and seeing the full house, the girl was confused and entangled in a long sentence. However, not confused and blamed the prompter. Bent to the prompter's box and said: 'Please, do not buzz, you're just confusing me, I know without you'. Then turned to the actor, who was supposed to say their words, and not when you make mistakes, loudly and sensibly said from the beginning to the end of his long sentence. In the auditorium this event has caused an explosion of laughter and applause.
. After the performance, one friend said the mother of Sasha: 'Here's a good sport about your Volodya! " - And was extremely surprised when she responded that the role of Petit played her daughter, Sanya, and not the son Volodya.
. Harsh School
. Came up during exercise
. Sasha had to part with the family: she was taken to St. Petersburg and gave to the care of aunt, directress of the private school, the so-called 'Ivanovo school authorities humane society'.
. Here's how to remember that time Alexandra: 'After a happy life in the family, . full caress, . care and love, . family, . where we are all each other has always been frank, . sharing their thoughts, . feelings and desires, . I had to learn to restrain any manifestation of his 'I',
. Aunt, an unusually direct and fair, was strict and harsh teacher.
. In the first place it was discipline, deportment and performance of duty.
. All the institute years I've only heard: 'do not knock', 'do not say out loud', 'do not wave your hands', 'do not do unnecessary movements'
. All these years, every action is seen as 'permissible' or 'unwarranted' ( 'it can', and 'this is not'). And, when the first summer vacation I came home, all struck by the change had taken place in me. I became a closed, lean. I compressed and ashamed to show their affection for native. After all, Aunt so ironic over my gentleness and kindness, so hard it drove every manifestation of excessive, in her view, the sensitivity!
. Of course, it is in its own way she loved me, but, fearing for the sake of love for me to be unfair to the other pupil was with me twice as demanding and stricter than with all other
. I was the youngest in the class, but no one ever helped me. Aunt forbade me to go for help, even to the classroom lady, to which all went for an explanation of lessons. 'Learn and think about herself - she said, every evening, locking me in the office. - Points will be set after you, and you should do everything themselves, at no counting '.
And I was alone in the office, located between the stairs and a large hall,. It was sad and scary. At first I cried, and then resigned and was used. This harsh school developed in me a self. Nine-year girl, I rode one from St. Petersburg to Moscow and back. Many times in my life, I thanked her aunt for such education of my feelings. Indeed, as it should, it helps you in difficult cases!
My aunt could not endure any falsehood, no hypocrisy. Profoundly truthful, she provided me in this regard, a huge impact. Not only her, but when I stayed in school one (aunt got married and then left the rules of the institute), I never lied. Lying has become for me 'mortal sin'. It would be bad nor did I have from my truth, I could never retreat from it. Many I've had because of this trouble. When I felt some injustice to my colleagues - all the same, by teachers, classroom lady or her friends - I stood up for truth, attacking the offenders and forgetting about yourself. Her friends love me for it. Classroom lady called me because of my hereditary temper 'phosphoric match', and friends - 'lawyer'. Already being an actress, I could not control myself. If the theater happened something unjust, I could not resist not to express their attitude, not to join the fight for their opinion, and I never wavered from his belief. My friends knew my character and often approached me for support, and many times I have acted as an advocate on issues of concern to the theater '.
. Baptism Battle
. In 1885 Yablochkina graduated with honors from college, went to Moscow and opens his secret desire to become an actress not to anyone else, as Glikeriya Fedotova.
. 'In the autumn I was in class Fedotova, read to her from' Eugene Onegin 'letter Tatiana
. I do not know how I read it, just remember that my feelings were strong and deep. The fate of Pushkin's Tatyana at that moment became my. My emotion communicated to those who sat in the hall: Glikeriya N., listening to me, tears. At her request, I was allowed to join the group of pupils of the ballet school, with whom she worked.
Fedotov has been an excellent teacher. From his students, she demanded a devoted love for the cause. She tried to instill in our relentless severity of self and hatred of laziness. Fedotova not tolerate vulgarity, finely felt the slightest falsehood despised people spotted her nonentity great deal of theater.
. She disliked and persecuted on stage sentimentality, demanded that the grief and suffering were the courage, strength and severity.
. Glikeriya Nikolaevna Fedotov blessed me to the first performance on stage
. How memorable to me that day!
Very Glikeriya N. clothed me (as I remember this attire: it was a white hood Nadezhda Nikulin), the very makeup. I Acted as Tatiana in the passage from 'Eugene Onegin'. When it came to display our scene, I shook and felt ready to go home. Excitement and fear, I remember it well, with such power over me that have only one desire - to escape from the upcoming tests. The test seemed to me to death: I rushed to Fedotova, begging to let me go home. I told her that she did not want to be an actress. N. Glikeriya understood my condition, calmed me, wise words dampen my excitement, made nerved herself launched to the scene.
I do not remember how to finish my monologue ... Closed the curtain, there was applause. Glikeriya N. came to me, beaming: 'Good boy, Sanya! I received a baptism of fire! "
Fedotova wanted some of her students, and including myself, participated at the exit at the Maly Theater staged the play 'Arius and Messalina'. We were supposed to represent heteras. The scene was during the feast, and was very stormy. For me, every requirement theater, then it is equivalent to the immutable law. But when the father learned of this, he strongly objected to my participation in this production. Father was outraged and did not conceal his indignation. He believed that young girls should not be debuting in this repertoire. He went on break from college: I was taken from school. They've gone to Tiflis, because at this time my father served in the Russian drama from Pitoeva. My father decided to take me himself. "
We started rehearsing Catarino in 'Taming of the Shrew "by Shakespeare. And then my father was faced with the fact that he was brought up in his daughter: with the skills of 'good taste'! Playing Catarino, it was necessary first of all to despise secular conventions. Rebellious heroine did not think, if she had to give a slap to her future groom. It is understood Alexander. But it was not a rehearsal, a lot, but it lacked the internal resolve to this crude gesture. How did she - a young, shy girl - could hit the man, well mannered, good actor! No hand was raised - and only. And my father was very angry, raging, and once even wanted to drive her away from the scene. Then she plucked up courage, closed my eyes and hit a partner: not seeing where beats, hit him on the head. The comic effect is softened his father's anger ...
In 1886, Alexander accepted the invitation Yablochkina F. Korsch join his troupe. One day there was an episode Korsch. Yablochkina comes into the room and sees: is the actor and something tells - all laughing, but when the girl - fall silent. In tears Sasha ran to his mother: 'They think I'm donoschitsey, when I fall silent'. His mother laughed: "Silly, they spare your youth and do not want you to listen to vulgar and free talk '.
In the theater Korsch Yablochkina stayed long. In 1888, she became an actress of the Maly Theater, where he spent her whole life.
Honestly not learned
"A lot of heavy minutes, fell to my share in the first years of service in the Maly Theater. But the joy that brought the rehearsals and performances, bathed much. So I could not part with the Maly Theater, once embarked on his stage. In the company there were many capable young people, but the bosses are not really interested in it, and little attention on press reviews. Yes, and artistic family of the Maly Theater was a very close-knit. On arriving from the beginner looking with obvious suspicion, giving himself flounder. Ceased to shun 'newbie', if they saw that he came to the theater is not the easy fame that he truly loves the stage and knows how to work.
I remember one case. One of the young actresses looking to join me in the Maly Theater, a performance. Central role is played. P. Umanets-Paradise. Her severely criticized my companion, I also liked the game of the Paradise, and we strongly argued. During the intermission, going behind the scenes, we were against the lavatory Umanets-Paradise. The door was open, I said hello, but was not included, but my companion burst into the dressing room and rushed to kiss Iraida Pavlovna, spilling enthusiastic praise for her performance.
. I never learned to play the hypocrite - she could not praise the actor or actress when I do not like
. B. What was the position of any actor in the troupe, however much it may influence it in the theater, I could not adjust themselves to the smarmy tone. There remained a sincere and spoke in person their opinion: and making as Foes. But I wanted to play, otherwise the life of me feel sweet. I dreamed about the many roles, copied them and carefully rehearsed. This was a completely selfless work. Work only for ourselves, work that never went beyond the limits of my room. No one appointed me to play these roles, I worked on them for itself. I found this great inner satisfaction.
In the theater, somehow found out about my home work and good-naturedly laughed at her. K. N. Rybakov jokingly said that the role has not yet allocated and Yablochkina already learned by heart all up to the male. How many happy hours of creative, I spent in my room, working on the roles that - I knew it - will play more! Cried tears of his heroines, laughed their laugh, rejoice in their joy. Along with them felt great feeling, lived bold, broad ideas, free desires ...
When I was twenty years old, I became a bride. While the groom and not very liked, I gave my consent: native persistently tried to persuade me to marry him. But our wedding was upset. We had little in common. At each meeting, I told him about the theater, and he was sitting, pale with jealousy. Once, he broke down and told me: 'What kind of life will be with us - you're the only theater in the mind ...'
I realized that he would do everything possible to separate me from the theater, but without the theater, I can not live. Came to her mother and declared that she did not get married. Collected all the dowry, which made me the groom's mother (we have in this do not have the means), and sent it back. No persuasions had no effect on me - I could not change his decision all his life to give the theater.
I did not have to regret this. Theater - my family, my house. There were those who I worship, those who, despite their weaknesses and shortcomings, she loved. Theater filled in me all that was lacking in the life. Even in my youth I never felt any loneliness or lack of valid life experiences. I've always been greedy to work to create opportunities, create new and more scenic images.
. But neither winning role, . neither secured its success with the public - nothing could tempt me, . If I felt the falsity of the contrived and ridiculous actions, . and above, . If I felt vulgarity, . helplessness or artificial language, . which malodarovity author makes his characters talk.,
. So, remember, I refused to play in the play Nevezhina 'second youth'
. How much spent the director of eloquence, . to convince me to participate in the show! When I read this 'art', . I just felt ashamed at the mere thought of, . that I will be forced to publicly speak incredible triviality, . expressed to the same illiterate,
. I could not bring himself to speak in this play on stage - and not acted.
. I asked: how can you honestly pass certain sense, . if you are not experienced in their life? Where, . example, . playing a negative role, . you derive as much vicious cruelty, . because in life you have completely different? I myself thought about the psychology of the creative side,
. The fact is that the creative artist's important role is played by the nature of man, his feelings, his behavior. Every man knows not only the feelings that are close to him. Even without testing, he knows them. Otherwise, how could we understand the blinding jealousy of Othello, Iago's malice or black? But we understand these people as well as the good, love the characters of Shakespeare. Man given to imagination. The artist is sharpened, intensified, and, besides, he is constantly developing this property. But there are artists who love only come from directly experienced, and there are artists who love the game of the imagination, that 'fiction', over which the poet shed tears. Of course, such an invention - a trace of life experiences, memories and feelings of living. But the fact I'm an actress, with the aid of art to be able to convey not only what I know from personal experience, but what I am doing '.
. Since 1915 Yablochkina led the Moscow branch of the All-Russia theatrical society, and from 1917 to the 1964th - All-Russia theatrical society
During the war, Alexandra, as best I could trying to keep the soldiers:
'... My age does not allow me to go to the front, to participate in front-line teams. Nevertheless, during the war years I've gained a lot of veterans among wonderful friends, carried with them the correspondence. Wrote them letters, . which sought to convey the fullness of her maternal love for them, . and they told me about his fight, . of feats of arms had, . about the difficult life at the front, . his deep belief in our victory, . love for Russian art, . Science, . literature.,
. Not a single letter, I did not leave without an answer - all the requests, the orders of my correspondents always tried to do as accurately as possible and in time
. Here is excerpts from several letters:
'When I read your letter, I thought that before me a letter to my mother, because every word came from pure mother's heart. Since only a mother could write to his son. Assistant Commander H. D. Ershev '.
'I was born in Kiev, has lost all contact with her father and mother, girlfriend and all relatives. And now I so wanted to write to a friend, and I dared to write to you because you have a favorite way for me to representatives of Russian culture. A. Ratchenko '.
"Your letter received, when he was at the forefront. If you, dear Alexandra, knew how I was overjoyed! I was sitting in the tank and waited for the order, when suddenly brought your letter. It boosted the morale, and my strength has increased several times. You already know that on our front is a successful offensive. Small fraction belongs to me, but because of small deeds great shape! "
These letters - letters Yablochkina called them sons - and told her about the exploits of those who could not write himself actress. When she learned that one of them wounded, her heart ached and she did not calm down until then, until not recognize the healing of wounded. Some of her friends died on the battlefield, and Alexandra mourned for them as a grieving mother of sons.
. In 1943, a wonderful actress was awarded the State Prize of the USSR.
. Later, she wrote two books of memoirs: 'Life in the Theater' (1953) and '75 years in the Theater '(1960)
. The last time came on the scene in 1961 as Miss Crawley in 'Vanity Fair' W. Thackeray.
March 20th, 1964 Alexandra, died in Moscow on 98 year of life.
She was buried in Novodevichy Cemetery. At home, where in 1906-64 she lived Yablochkina (Big Dmitrovka, 4 / 2) - plaque. Name assigned to the House Yablochkin actor WTO, the Moscow House Veterans' scene. Since 1995, House actor award a prize Yablochkin best actors.
Awards and prizes
1937 People's Artist of USSR
1943 winner of the Stalin Prize
three Commander of the Order of Lenin
Roles in the theater
'Woe from Wit' A. S. Griboyedov
"Wolves and Sheep 'A. N. Ostrovsky
'Forest' A. N. Ostrovsky
'Love Yarovaya' Trenev
1889 - 'The Auditor' H. V. Gogol
1894 - 'Hamlet' by Shakespeare
1895 - 'King Lear' by Shakespeare
1897 - 'Richard III' Shakespeare
1904 - 'Mad Money' A. N. Ostrovsky
1907 - "Even a Wise Man Stumbles' A. N. Ostrovsky
1908 - 'Guilty Without Guilt' A. N. Ostrovsky
1919 - 'The Auditor' H. V. Gogol
1923 - 'A Glass of Water' E. Scribe
1938 - 'Woe from Wit' A. S. Griboyedov. Director: Prov Sadovsky
1951 - 'Living Corpse' N. N. Tolstoy
Photos of Yablochkin Alexander
Photos of Yablochkin Alexander