Anatoly ZHELEZNYAKOV( Sailor, Hero of the Civil War)
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Biography Anatoly ZHELEZNYAKOV
Anatoly Zheleznyakov third child was born on April 20 (May 2 - New Style) 1895 in the Russian Orthodox family, . resided at that time in Moscow suburbs (s Fedoskino Moscow province - now part of the city Dolgoprudny) and ranked according to the established social group, then the law - petty-bourgeois class.,
. Father - Gregory Egorovich Zheleznyakov (1850 - 1902), Russian Orthodox faith, a man of firm, decisive and stubborn character, went through three long and difficult period of tsarist military service
. Mother - Maria Pavlovna Zheleznyakova (before marriage Eliseeva) was occupied by domestic concerns about the education of children.
. In August 1895 Zheleznyakova family moved to Moscow, where Gregory Yegorovich managed to find a job superintendent of the building of one of Moscow's administrative agencies
. Fourth child in the family - son Victor was born in 1899.
Unexpectedly large family Zheleznyakova it's great grief - of a heart attack in 1902, his father passed away and the main family breadwinner Gregory Ye. For the widow Maria Pavlovna Zheleznyakova and her children came a very difficult time full of want and deprivation.
. His older brother Nicholas, eighteen young man on whose shoulders had to go to the main RESPONSIBILITY for the material welfare of the family, went to the Black Sea, where he as a sailor on one of the merchant ships
. Therefore, the main assistant to Maria Pavlovna and the main dobytchitsey livelihood was incomplete in its sixteen years of serious and responsible daughter Alexandra, . which, . obtaining high-school education, . was forced to get a job as a tutor, a tutor in a wealthy Moscow family and secure.,
. In order to alleviate the plight of family financial situation fifteen Anatolia, . a son of a soldier, . has served three terms in the army, . and now found themselves without paternal care, . able to arrange for training at public expense in Lefortovo Military medical assistant college,
. Anatoly Zheleznyakov, . outstanding during the first two years of training in good standing, . become extremely impatient with heavy barrack drill, . trudnoperenosimoy atmosphere of tyranny and violence and, . most importantly, . not seen it myself in the role of the military paramedic, . and dreamed, . his brother Nicholas, . Marine, . freestyle elements and sea travel,
Soon students from the military, para-medical schools Zheleznyakova A.G. presented a very good opportunity, . to prove his unwillingness to kowtow holuystvovat and instituted a sergeant major and captain, . that, . rabolepstvuya, . ugodnichaya and vysluzhivayas to higher ranks, . daily and hourly, insulted and humiliated the personal dignity of each subordinate listeners,
. Not feeling any loyalty to the royal dynasty, . Anatoly, . According to the Administration School, . allowed not only the personal disrespect to royalty, . and made a crude political act against the imperial power, . severely punished with a judicial order and paying court-martialed, . when not out at the grand building in honor of the universal celebration of April 23, 1912 - the birth of her Majesty the Empress Maria Feodorovna Romanova,
In the proceedings of this extraordinary incident Listener Zheleznyakov A.G. said head of school, have not reached the grand building, because he, too, birthday. An unbelievably daring young man of seventeen, one of the best graduate students of the course, infuriated the general's chief of schools. However, to give the offender a court he did not dare, . fearing, . that the details of this scandal will be distributed throughout the whole of Moscow and, . certainly, . be known the empress herself, . then the consequences of what happened to him - head may be the most disastrous,
It managed to hush up, but at the Gendarmerie Administration, however, were issued the necessary papers and opened the case to another secure accommodation, for which we must organize the attentive care. In brief Gendarme certificate stated:
'Zheleznyakov Anatoly, a tradesman, was born April 20, 1895 in the village Fedoskino Moscow Province. Father - Gregory Egorovich Zheleznyakov. Died in 1902. Mother - Maria Pavlovna Zheleznyakova, from the middle class. He lives modestly, no one takes.
P r i m e t s:
No special signs. Height - above average. Hair - dark. Eyes - blue. He is fond of reading. The school is often conducted with the trainees indecent talk about family Imperial Majesty '.
After serving the prescribed time in the school cell, frustrated military paramedic, was expelled from school, allegedly at the request of his mother - Maria Pavlovna Zheleznyakova because of her poor health, and providing it with necessary assistance.
On his return to his family, Anatolia, as having some medical knowledge, was able to get into the local drugstore when weaving plant manufacturer Arseny Morozov.
However, the thought of the sea it did not leave. Anatoly twice made attempts to come to study in Rostov and Kronstadt nautical school. For various reasons, these attempts have not been implemented.
However, He does not leave a dream to become a sailor. Following the example of his elder brother Nicholas, he went to the Black Sea, with joy by changing the white pharmacist's smock in the sailor's overalls. Zheleznyakov became a merchant seaman, receiving the first, albeit slight, but really salty sailor's labor earnings.
Sailed as a sailor, the stoker on ships one navigation, Anatoly returned to Moscow and found work as a fitter at Butyrskii ammunition factory manufacturer Liszt Gustav. At the factory, he made friends with many of the workers and, . most likely, . participated in the activities of the factory workers' organizations, . which had already come under police surveillance for participation in clandestine activities and distribution of leaflets revolutionary content.,
. Here in this troubled time and with such a life experience it was time to go to Anatolia military service - an allegiance to the king and the fatherland
. In 1915 he was called on the navy and sent a crew of Kronstadt, where in the machine at school taught specialty engine-fireman. It was the most difficult and does not require any special knowledge work: throwing a shovel coal into the boiler furnace during the interminably long four-hour shifts - the usual lot of an engine-fireman.
By what criteria are distributed sailors in the crew of the ship's specialties, it is difficult to determine. But frankly, that in those early years, young people from among the recruits who have not only high-school education, but who can more or less read and write, was not too much, and simply, even a very small
. Moscow Jaunty, . confident, . bold, . educated guy with knowledge of French language and working hardening, . with experience in basic military service and navigation systems on board ships, . can safely assume, . could become a fireman, . only because of the unreliability of the existing autocratic system, . for free -, . for disobedience, . for an independent and direct character, . for, . I could say the right words and firmly defend their,
Grounds the naval authorities for this decision, as evidenced archival materials, was enough
. After the initial phase of training in the crew, . Seaman AG Zheleznyakov in 1916 was appointed to the boiler and machine group on a specially built in 1902 to provide marine personnel practices of the largest in its class training ship 'Ocean',
I must say that the crew of 'Ocean' is by this time a friendly and swim sailor staff, participated in the annual long-distance voyages. In the Sailors' team have already formed certain traditions, . had their own leaders, . pushing forward the just demands for the abolition of cruelty to seamen by some gentlemen-officers and zealous executors of their power sergeant Boatswain pood with fists, . of educational measures which the faces and in other places on the body of the sailors were traces,
. No wonder in 1910 on the 'Ocean' an uprising of sailors, joined by some other ships in Kronstadt. The uprising was brutally suppressed by sailors. But the revolutionary spirit in a sailor's environment remains
. Clearly, . that engine-stoker Anatoly Zheleznyakov, . poured in a sailor's environment, . gained adherents and advocates of their interests and views, . most important of which were personal independence, . freedom and the negation of all the pressure and administrative despotism on the part of the ship's authorities,
Most likely, at that time he had a moderate anarchist views, for the elimination of all power as a result of spontaneous, without amplification of the ideological pressure from, for self-expression of the will of the masses. Of course, he immediately became active in the number of sailors, the crew. However, neither of which parties with different ways of development, which number throughout Russia exceeded fifty, he did not join.
Ship's authorities have repeatedly had to listen to the just demands of the sailors relieve the firemen and avoid insults and accusations against them
. Once in a training mission took place case, . when the boatswain machine instruction, . down into the boiler room, . with a cry went for firemen, . they, . loafers, . do not fulfill their duties and do not support the required mode-fired steam pressure,
Yesterday, before going out to sea on a ship loaded with fine high ash content, as in such cases, they say, 'empty' coal, which does not melt and the samovar. However, the boatswain, without examining the real reasons, in the manner of conventional treatment to cattle, the sailors threatened all tried and let rot in jail. The reaction of the sailors on such threats was not in favor of the boatswain and the situation developed very stressful. Stokers, crowded around the boatswain, tried to explain that the cause of it all is a bad coal, but the boatswain furious and demanded to fulfill the requirements of ship bosses. At this moment the sailor, the stoker Anatoly Zheleznyakov, discarding a spade, came close to the Bosun and the ensuing silence, said firmly:
- In the furnace wanted? Steam in the boilers immediately rises. Remember, the boatswain, - Anatoly continued - at firemen could not scream, they are dealing with fire. Now go in and reported to chief engineer, coal made in flight - a continuous dust. And our conversation advise silent.
Sailors cheered in unison, maintaining their leader, and stunned the boatswain turned sharply and ran headlong climbed up the ladder, walked quickly away from the boiler room
. This rebellious act of the full wrath of a just sailors, . although not followed by any administrative sanctions, . But Anatoly said to himself more attention from the boatswain to monitor every step of his behavior and, . primarily, . with respect to: does not he talk with the sailors against the war or the overthrow of the autocracy, not hiding it for personal things forbidden literature of political content,
. Soon, in the presence of a large number of sailors and junior ranks, there was another incident during one of the ship's all hands on deck, . When Anatoly interceded for sailor, . which became a hit in the face a young officer, . apparently, . Considering, . that the sailor is lazy and does not work on your site tidy,
. Catching his hand, standing to the officer to strike, the fireman Zheleznyakov loud, so many who are on the deck, could be heard strongly pronounced:
. - Your Honor, the Sea statute can not beat a sailor!
. In the presence of a large number of crew on charges of resisting an officer, which will certainly become known to the captain, without a doubt be followed by severe punishment
. Tribunal! Alarming was then time for the ships of the Baltic Fleet.
Sailor stoker AG Zheleznyakov, to avoid reprisals from the ship's command, took the only right decision at the time - immediately disappear and leave the ship. June 12, 1916 Anatoly Zheleznyakov escaped from the training ship 'Ocean'.
. Life in the conspiracy
. I did not know at that time, Anatoly, . that his escape was timely for another reason, . that the captain had had only that obtained from the Naval General Staff, the official paper, . supporting political disloyalty to serve on the Baltic Fleet AG Zheleznyakova, . which, . According to the Moscow Gendarmerie, . conducted revolutionary propaganda among the factory workers and supplied them with illegal literature, . and this, coupled with the case of the more threatened with imminent arrest,
Appearing soon with relatives in Moscow, Anatoly warned that it was due to a serious conflict with the ship's command committed a willful escape from the ship's. Due to the fact that this act is in fact a deviation from the royal military service, now in hiding, fearing possible arrest. He begged not to tell these details of his mother, Maria Pavlovna, so once again it does not disappoint
. Short period Anatoly was in Bogorodsk, . where with the help of trusted friends and colleagues he was able to equip oneself by remaking the Marine ammunition in civilian clothes, . buying, . true, . Civil cap for safety changes its appearance,
. But, most importantly, it is - to produce, although hardly convincing, but gives, at first, the possibility of an open movement, a certificate, which was witnessed by:
. 'Bogorodskoe county military presence hereby certifies that a citizen Zheleznyakov Anatoly released from military service on sick'
With a heavy heart and deep sadness Anatoly parted with Moscow, relatives and friends may not even be hoping for his safe return. In his diaries there are such lines:
. 'Goodbye, Moscow! When I see you there again or not? Farewell, live, be brave and honest, whether it is as welcoming, kind and hospitable to us, the workers, and continue to say that you hated, and with an open and clear brow
. Good-bye! ".
Being one without moral support from relatives and acquaintances, he is in a conspiracy to sharply reduced with correspondence, so as not to expose their loved ones possible danger. However, Anatoly very firmly, persistently and with determination, to judge by his diaries, searching for ways out of this situation.
First, Anatoly went to Saratov, where he had friends, hoping to straighten out a more reliable and a solid document, and then lay on his way already familiar to the Black Sea. Once in Novorossiysk, with great difficulty, he managed to get a seat on the fireman's maritime cargo-passenger ship 'Princess Christina', plying the Black Sea, not only from Odessa to Batumi, but also to ports in Romania, Turkey and Bulgaria
. Then he even had the idea, . advantage of the favorable situation, . 'to get to the whaling or seal-hunting, . and there ah-da 'there' - in America, . to him in those years seemed a symbol of freedom and the struggle of the oppressed people for their rights,
. For more than six months in severe winter storm conditions otplaval Anatoly stoker on merchant ships, . plying the Black Sea, . but the sailors' meager salaries are not enough for even a little bit of normal existence, . but he still refused to implement its bold, . but still an unfulfilled plan,
. In his diaries, he left the following entry: 'The harder, more dangerous fight, the better and sweeter victory. Life is full of wanderer turmoil, hardship and harsh feelings, but beautiful wild freedom and a free stroke of desires: '.
At a time when coming to an end a turbulent and desolate in 1916 to Anatoly Zheleznyakova - a young man, who was only twenty-second year, came the most critical period in his life. How to choose the way forward? What awaits ahead? Why seek? There are many questions, but how and where to find the right answer?
. Ways supporting and distracting themselves from the onslaught sometimes 'nightmarish anguish', . cause of which was the loneliness, . from the constant stress and moral necessity do not accidentally fall under police supervision, and dissatisfaction with their situation, . Anatoly tried to read a lot and even re-read several times those in its possession books and newspapers, . that 'the soul was gloomy and sullen, . in a stormy night ',
Despite life's difficulties and the very shadowy future, Anatoly, however, a young naive optimism looked to the upcoming 1917.
'New Year! What do you give me three things that lie in my path? Death, freedom or imprisonment?..
I am not afraid, and boldly look forward, because I believe that I won. Courage in his movements, in the cool, confident in the media - all this will give me my faith, faith in a brighter future
. Long Live the life, work!
. Long live the hardships and difficulties!
. New Year! I conduct I you or not? "
. Being away from Petrograd, . where at that time there were major historical events, . He does not know, . that only three winter months he remained at sea shtormovat, . but I feel it is not fooled, . when he wrote in his diary, . that 'left a bit, . When you weed out the terms of this troubled ',
. But could, . certainly, . then, . New Year's Eve 1917, . Anatoly assume, . that the fate of his ugotovila only two and a half years of active, . bright, . heroic life, . leaving an imprint on the history of our country to the complex and ambiguous period,
The last diary page were records relating to the March-April 1917.
'So, I'm a citizen! Something new on the face of our land! But I was not happy, nor sad. New fun for the good Russians, and only.
A coup, which is long, but surely was prepared for many years. Emperor Nicholas abdicated, and the bourgeoisie stood at the helm of government. And now begins subtle intricacies of the policy of the capitalists.
But what got people? The right to free vote, assembly, and organizations. There followed a number of orders for the release of political prisoners - all in the order of things.
How should I do?
What to do?
Oh, you kutsaya freedom, as lop you! "
The last diary entry, as it were breaks off in mid-sentence, leaving something important unsaid. There is an involuntary feeling that the author of these lines will soon be required to return and complete description of his life.
'Life since March 18, abruptly turned and stepped over its run. Was the meeting of seamen. Going out, talking and start to live the life they dream of the life of a public figure. Write laziness Affairs abyss ... But who am I? ".
After the February Revolution
The February Revolution of 1917 occurred in Russia, has completely changed his views and interests. Evaluating a generally positive, but with a certain degree of revolutionary vigilance accomplished fact, Anatoly G. Zheleznyakov abandoned his idea to leave Russia and emigrate to America. He decided to return to Petrograd, to his friends Baltic seamen to be a direct participant impending momentous events in Russia
. In April 1917, AG Zheleznyakov, . arrested in Moscow for a few days, . to see his mother and relatives, . then went to Petrograd, . where the main historical place of, . not as an exile, . hiding from the authorities, . but as a freeman, . to become not merely a witness tremendous achievements, . but active participant,
. It certainly can be argued, . that while AG Zheleznyakov was among the revolutionary-minded sailors, . re-establishing old ties and gaining new friends mostly, . comprising Tsentrobalt and adhering to the views of the Bolshevik overthrow of the Provisional Government,
. Summer of 1917, . Being an active participant in demonstrations against 'capitalist Ministers' Interim Government, . as a result of the mass repressions of the authorities Anatoly Zheleznyakov was arrested, . serving his sentence in prison, 'Crosses' and was sentenced to 14 years hard labor,
. With the help of like-minded friends escaped from prison. Under the assumed name Viktorsky, returned to Helsinki. Together with other sailors from Tsentrobalt, . occupant if the ship 'Polar Star', . former royal yacht, . continued to conduct propaganda and explanatory work among the ships of the Baltic Fleet sailors to expose the criminal policy of the bourgeois government of Kerensky,
In September 1917 The Second Congress of the sailors of the Baltic, in the convening of which, on the recommendation of Tsentrobalt participated Anatoly Viktorsky (Zheleznyakov). Members of this Congress fully supported the Leninist policy of armed insurrection. From the Baltic sailors were elected delegates to the Second Congress of Soviets in the number of 14 persons, among which, together with Dybenko Khovrin, Sapozhnikov, Myasnikov and the other was listed as Anatoly Viktorsky (Zheleznyakov).
The sailors of the Baltic met the expectations entrusted to them by the Bolsheviks. Anatoly Viktorsky again became Anatoly Zheleznyakov. Those from whom he was hiding, living out its last hours.
In October 1917 Tsentrobalt launched extensive training on the ships of the fleet for an armed insurrection and seize power. On the eve of the uprising in the Neva entered the ships 'Aurora', 'Zarya Vostoka', 'Cupid', 'Hopper', 'Samson', 'Bully'. Thanks to the active actions of prominent organizers Sailors masses Dybenko, Markina, Khovrin, Zheleznyakova, Izmailov, Sladkova Mokrousov and others in Petrograd, Kronstadt arrived Consolidated 20 th detachment of armed sailors. Revolutionary-minded sailors have taken part in the storming of the Winter Palace and arrested members of the Provisional Government, the seizure of mail, bank, telegraph, railway stations, power plants and other administrative and commercial buildings in the city. During the uprising killed 15 people and injuring about 60 people
. On the night of 25 to 26 October 1917 at the Smolny opened in the Second Congress of Soviets of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies, . to which he was elected Anatoly Zheleznyakov among the delegates from Tsentrobalt, . announced, . that all power in the country goes to the Congress of Soviets, . Russia proclaimed a republic of the Soviet Republic and from that moment begins a new, . Soviet period, Russia's history,
. The congress was also formed by the Soviet government - the Council of People's Commissars.
After the October coup and overthrow of the Provisional Government in Petrograd began a period of 'triumphant march of Soviet power' - the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat throughout Russia.
The first difficulty of the post-October uprising experienced Moscow. By the decision of the Petrograd Revolutionary Committee to the aid of revolutionary Moscow was formed and sent an armed detachment of the First Petrograd sailors and Putilov workers to command instructing the sailors NA Khovrin and AG Zheleznyakova. As we move the train to Moscow sailors in the detachment Bologoe area disarmed Whiteguard an armored train. Before the arrival of the train to Moscow armed uprising defeated. The Kremlin was purged of the cadets and other parts of the enemy. By decision of the Moscow Soviet victims of the tragedy in Moscow, which was more than a thousand people were buried near the Kremlin wall on Red Square. Arrived from St. Petersburg detachment of sailors, although not involved in the fighting, but organized the patrols in the city, conducted raids to capture quite dead counter-revolutionaries, to disperse the hooligans and speculators, brings revolutionary order in the city.
At the end of November 1917 a detachment of seamen received from Petrograd to follow the directive for military assistance to the workers and peasants of Ukraine to the Soviet takeover. On the way we work Tula isolated detachment additional weapons (10 thousand rifles and 40 machine guns to arm the Donbas workers) and a significant reinforcement (4 armored cars, 2 train, several guns, a company of soldiers). Now the detachment of sailors already represented a considerable force. The first of this baptism of fire took place near Belgorod, where there was a fierce battle with the shock battalions White General Dukhonin.
After detachment, heading to the Ukraine, to assist effectively in Kharkov Bolsheviks, led by Artem (Sergeeva), and Rudnev, to seize the stations and the telegraph, CD Chuguevsky school cadets.
After completing its mission, the detachment after receiving instructions from V.A.Antonova-Ovseyenko (1883-1939), who at that time led by all troops, both to seize the Winter Palace, and on the establishment of Soviet power in the south, returned to Petrograd. After arrival in Petrograd, the detachment was disbanded, the sailors were sent on their ships
. State building then be attributed to the conduct of genuinely democratic reforms in the country for the preparation and holding of general elections to the Constituent Assembly of Russia to establish a form of government and develop a democratic constitution,
However, the results of hasty elections to the Constituent Assembly in December 1917 showed that RSDLP Party (Bolsheviks) has received a minority vote. January 5, 1918 in the Tauride Palace, the first meeting of the Constituent Assembly, where a widespread and long debate. Bolshevik faction of the lack of support from members of other factions could not hold for the adoption of any of its solutions. This situation is extremely angered Lenin, . who was summoned to a serious personal conversation chairman Tsentrobalt Paul Dybenko and categorically ordered to disperse the Constituent Assembly is the disobedient, . saying, . that democracy is time to finish: it's time to move on to the dictatorship of the proletariat,
Before the Constituent Assembly in Petrograd was a state of siege. For the protection of the Tauride Palace and the smooth functioning of the deputies were organized by two guards: external and internal. The structure of the revolutionary guards were sailors from the cruiser 'Aurora', a battleship 'Russia', other ships and soldiers of revolutionary regiments. Head of Internal guard directly in the Tauride Palace was a Bolshevik sympathizer sailor Anatoly Zheleznyakov
. Deep into the night is Jan. 6, 1918, arrived at the Tauride Palace chairman Tsentrobalt Paul Dybenko and, . summoned the chief of internal guard sailor Anatoly Zheleznyakova, . gave a categorical requirement of the President of People's Commissars of Lenin did not stand on ceremony with the 'Constituent' until its dissolution,
. At 4 hours, 40 minutes, 6 January 1918 the chief guard of the Tauride Palace, Anatoly Zheleznyakov accompanied by sailors and soldiers of the guard, . executing directly from the Ulyanov (Lenin) oral order, . entered the courtroom and told the MPs:,
. - In accordance with the decision of the Council of People's Commissars, the Constituent Assembly should immediately cease operations and dissolve!
. At the same time quite peaceful and democratic stage of the revolutionary transformations in Russia over
. Everywhere and has become firmly established the dictatorship of the proletariat. 'Who was nothing will become everything! ". 'Rob the robbers! ". 'Proletarian around the lord'. 'Bay counterrevolution! ". What bold and decisive slogans! A requirement 'Land to the peasants!', 'Factory workers!', Which urged the people to revolt, were forgotten.
. This was the beginning of the civil war in Russia, as a process of open armed confrontation of different political parties, classes, social classes and different groups in the struggle for power and property
Tsentrobalt by executing its primary task in the implementation of the October uprising, was dissolved and ceased to exist.
Decision of the Council of People's Commissars in late January 1918 AG Zheleznyakova sent to the south of the country with a particularly important message. As a member of the Supreme Court for the Russian-Romanian and Bessarabian Cases, . Chairman of the Revolutionary headquarters of the Danube Flotilla, . He participated in organizing activities for the establishment of Soviet power and anti-troops boyars of Romania, . Austro-Hungarian and Germanic troops, . Ukrainian counterrevolutionary Gaydamak to disarm the Russian army, . ships Danube Flotilla, . was part of the Black Sea Fleet, . and prevent the dispersal of the Bolshevik, . revolutionary committees.,
. In March 1918, AG Zheleznyakova Birzulskim appointed commander of the fortified area, which were listed in the substantial reserves and combat units
. Receiving direct instructions from the commander of the Southern Front Antonov-Ovseenko, AG Zheleznyakov led a detachment of sailors and soldiers in the 1500 and participated in combat operations against the Austro-Germanic invaders
. After completing its mission on the Romanian front, . AG Zheleznyakov returned to Petrograd, . where in the early summer of 1918 received a new task: to form a detachment of sailors to follow the Southern Front, . then became the main front to protect the Soviet Republic,
. A detachment of seamen, who had two armored cars 'Tiger' and 'Lieutenant Schmidt', joined in the 16 th Division (Divisional VI Kikvidze) 14 Army (commander Voroshilov). AG Zheleznyakov after the reorganization of the division was appointed commander of the First Elanskogo Infantry Regiment of this division, carry-ing continuously engaged in fierce battles against the troops of the Cossack Ataman PN Krasnov.
In November 1918, against Russia began open foreign military intervention. Anglo-French troops landed in Novorossiysk, Odessa, Sevastopol
. During this period, AG Zheleznyakov and two comrades from the division (Peter Zaitsev and Boris Cherkun) were withdrawn from the front, first in Petrograd, . and then to Moscow, . where they got a new unusual task, . associated with illegal clandestine activities in, . temporarily occupied by foreign troops,
. The task before the young underground was very difficult: to penetrate in Odessa, . where to deploy illegal activities among seamen, . Dockers, . port workers and the population, . and among the French sailors against military intervention, . in support of the Soviet government,
Sadly parted AG Zheleznyakov with the division. And for years, both in character and spirit they approached each other. But do not know and did not anticipate fighting friends, that they are seen in the last. In January 1919, in a bloody, brutal and deadly battle with the Whites at the hamlet Zubrilovka on Don Divisional VI Kikvidze heroically dies
. Almost three-week stay in Moscow for Anatoly Zheleznyakova also was the last, . to see his mother, Maria Pavlovna, . to which he treated with love and playful tenderness, . and their relatives: his older sister Alexandra Grigorievna growing up with her two sons, Nicholas and George and beloved younger brother, Victor G.,
. For good reason for their Anatoly legendnyh names used, slightly altered, the name and year of birth of his younger brother: Viktorsky or Viktors.
One day, unexpectedly for all home, Anatoly said that he was going far to the south, to the territory ruled by the Whites and occupied by the invaders. He warned that the letters from him in the near future is not waiting.
. In Odessa underground
. The transition boundaries and overcoming all the way through Ukraine, . occupied by the enemy disparate, . trains, . carts, . foot and even by sea barge, . to Odessa, . Overcoming raid, . checkpoints, . cordons and unannounced inspections, . was not an easy and abundant in all kinds of unexpected situations, . which previously were not foreseen,
. Whenever required to take non-standard solutions, sometimes acting on intuition, based on the resulting situation.
Anatolia Zheleznyakova again had to take legendnuyu name and change the biography. Now he - Anatoly E. Viktors, 1899 year of birth, single, graduated from the Naval School in Kronstadt, he worked as a fireman and engineer, the last post - a mechanic, member of the merchant mariners since 1918.
Boris Cherkun - the second member of this group also had a document with similar content on the name of Boris Ivanovich Kolbasnikova.
According to legend, the two sailors, dressed in naval uniform with hoarded guns followed in Odessa to relatives as demobilized from the Navy due to illness or injury, and concussions are not recognized by health suitable for military service.
The third man in the illegal underground group was Elena Wind, which the AG Zheleznyakov met at the headquarters of the 16th Division. It was formed, . intelligent girl, . came from a wealthy family of the former tsarist army colonel, . but willingly accepted the Revolution, . behind which had already been several months of service in the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army,
. Elena acted under his own name, changing nothing in his biography. Manners, . aristocracy, . refined comportment, . excellent knowledge of foreign languages, . acquired during the period of study in a privileged institution - Institute of noble maidens again helped out of difficult circumstances, not only in the repetition period, . but in the future - specifically, when in Odessa,
In Odessa underground at that time under the conspiracy named 'Caesar' was already in a former Red Army 16th Division, Peter Zaitsev, which Zheleznyakov-Viktors constantly liaised. Soon formed a reliable group of underground, which included Gregory Borzenko, Alexander Bugaenko, Boris Chikovani, Konstantin Kazakov and other bold, desperate fighting companions. They launched vigorous activity among the Black Sea sailors, . Dockers Port, . repair workers in the factories for the overthrow of the White Guard authorities and Ukrainian nationalists, . against foreign invaders, . occupied Odessa, . for the establishment of Soviet power,
The revolutionary activity of the underground could not long be ignored by the Port Authority and the plant, the local gendarmerie and the White Guard Intelligence. Began the search for an underground group, but well conspired organization did not give the opportunity bacon and hatchet attack at their next.
In April 1919, parts of the Red Army had liberated the city of Odessa and to establish peaceful Soviet power. Leaving for the history legendnuyu biography, AG Zheleznyakov, as well as his comrades in the underground struggle together, began to organize a peaceful life in the city. He was elected chairman of the trade union merchant mariners in Odessa and with great enthusiasm, went to work on a completely new area of work for themselves.
However, realizing that it is far from a complete victory, what else are brutal and bloody battles that have killed in those battles his fellow sailors, AG Zheleznyakov began to insist sent to the front. He put forward a plan under which urgently need to repair, located in the railway depot, two former White Guard armored train and go to the front to help the Red Army. Receiving the consent of the authorities, AG Zheleznyakov personally monitored the repair of the train, picked up his team exclusively of volunteers. In May 1919, Odessa solemnly accompanied the front armored behalf Khudyakov, the commander who was appointed AG Zheleznyakov.
. The last battle Anatolia Zheleznyakova
. With fights, breaking through the self-styled bandit ambush atamans, armored behalf Khudyakova commanded AG Zheleznyakova arrived in Kremenchug, where the staff of the 14th Army (commander Voroshilov), and was included in the Army
. In the hot summer months of 1919, four armored trains, which are composed of the 14th Army, in conjunction with infantry fought grueling battles with the White troops.
. July 25, 1919 AG Zheleznyakov received orders to move out of an armored train in the area Ekaterinoslav and cover the retreat of infantry units to prosecute their White cavalry
. By the time White Cossacks captured Verkhivtseve station, cutting off for armored maneuver away in a westerly direction. The armored train was in a limited space for maneuvering.
AG Zheleznyakov took risky, but the only right decision - to avoid capture of an armored train Whites: to give full force and slip through the enemy occupied the railway station. Opened heavy fire on the enemy from the guns and rifles, armored overcame an enemy barrage, and swept through the station Verkhivtseve. AG Zheleznyakov was shooting at the enemy at once from two pistols, leaning to the waist of the tower. At the last moment, when the danger seemed passed, by a stray bullet struck down the brave commander. The wound in the chest proved fatal, July 26, 1919 AG Zheleznyakov, without regaining consciousness, died.
After saying farewell to friends and comrades from the train, brother-soldiers, soldiers and commanders of other parts of the coffin AG Zheleznyakova was brought to Moscow.
The newspaper Pravda in two editions for 2 and 3 August 1919 published an obituary to read:
'In the battle with the White Guard bands of Denikin on the Ukrainian front, had died the glorious commander armored behalf of Comrade. Khudyakov famous revolutionist Zheleznyakov Anatoly '.
Military department of the Red Army 'Glavbron', in the conduct of which was then part of the armored vehicles, organized a mournful farewell and funeral Baltic sailors, revolutionary underground, and the commander of an armored train AG Zheleznyakova.
Moscow with great sorrow the last farewell to their countryman. Lying in State AG Zheleznyakova carried on the armored car, accompanied by a large number of sailors, military friends, comrades, friends and relatives. The funeral procession proceeded from Novinsky Boulevard, which was held last farewell to Vagankovskoye Cemetery
. Buried AG Zheleznyakova surrounded by revolutionaries and heroes of the Civil War, near the graves Bauman, A. Vedernikov, VI Kikvidze - a division commander, a close friend of combat and other red commanders.
. Monuments sailor Zheleznyakov:
. - At home in the village Fedoskino Dmitrov district, Moscow region;
. - In Dolgoprudny (formerly stood on the Dmitrov highway, at the turn of Dolgoprudny, after 1991 moved to Park Resorts);
. - In Noginsk;
. - In Kronstadt;
. - In Chelyabinsk.
. Name A
. Zheleznyakova are:
Boulevard Sailor Zheleznyaka - in Moscow,
Street sailor Zheleznyaka - in St. Petersburg,
Street Partizan Zheleznyaka - Krasnoyarsk,
Motor ship Anatoly Zheleznyakov - home port of Kherson.
Photos of Anatoly ZHELEZNYAKOV
Photos of Anatoly ZHELEZNYAKOV