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MOROZOVA Anna

( Hero of the Soviet Union, scout)

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Biography MOROZOVA Anna
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Anna Afanasyevna Morozov was born May 23, 1921 in the village of Polyana Mosalskiy district of Kaluga Region in a peasant family. Russian. She lived in the city of Bryansk, then in the village Sescha Dubrovsky District, Bryansk region.

Among the many heroines spies of World War II the name of Anna Morozova can single out. For a long time it was in oblivion, but then it became widely known in our country thanks to the film "Call the fire itself," where her role brilliantly performed Ludmila Kasatkin. But few know that Seschinskoe underground and recounted in the film, it is only a third of its fighting career.

. Before the war the station Sescha Smolensk region, . three hundred kilometers from Moscow, . housed aircraft unit of the, . where a twenty-Anna Afanasevna, . but simply Anya Morozova worked modest hired clerk, . graduated from the 8 classes of schools and courses Accountants.,

. The day after the start of the war she came to the police and filed a petition to send to the front
. "It's the same front - said to her. - Will you work at the old place. "

But the Germans came closer, and once Anya was invited to the office of the deputy commander of. There sat a strange middle-aged officer. "Anya, - he said - we know you well. Soon there will be fascists. Our unit was evacuated. But someone has to stay. The work will be dangerous and difficult. Are you prepared for it? "

Of course, the conversation was not so short and not so simple. Anya expressed full confidence, and in May 1942 she was left to the clandestine intelligence work.

On the day of the evacuation had to play a small show: Anya rushed to the headquarters of a suitcase, when the last car with women and children had gone to the east. In view saddened she returned home, more precisely, in the building of the former kindergarten - their house was bombed. On the same evening in the village entered the German army.

The Germans were completely restored and expanded first-class airport, built shortly before the war. Seschinskaya Air Base has become one of the largest bases of long-distance bomber aircraft of Hitler, . where aircraft of the Second Air Force Luftwaffe, . slave-General Field Marshal Albert Kesselring, . carried out raids on Moscow, . Bitter, . Yaroslavl, . Saratov ..,
. The airfield had a strong air defenses, was safely protected from the earth, all the approaches to it were blocked, the area around the base was on a special mode.

. First time in the reconnaissance team was composed of Ani girls, working mainly in the service sector of the German military unit
. The names of these girls seschinskih: Pasha Bakutina, Lusia Senchilina, Lida Korneev, Maria Ivanyutich, Varya Kirshina, Anna Polyakova, Tanya Vasilkova, Motia Erokhina. Two more Jewish girls - Vera Molochnikova Pshestelents and Anya, who had escaped from the ghetto of Smolensk, which Anya half hid, and then has transported a partisan unit, and has been used as messengers. Information extracted girls Anya transferred a senior police Constantine Povarova - Head Seschinskoy underground organization associated with the guerrillas and scouts, and through them with the Center.

. Unfortunately, the information coming through the girls, was limited: Russian is not allowed directly to military facilities and headquarters.

. But the women have one indisputable advantage: where they can not act themselves, they operate through men
. Seschinskim underground fighter managed to charm at first, and then make these men and his assistants. However, I must say that they themselves were looking for connection with the underground. They were young Poles are mobilized to work in the German army: Two Yana - Tim and Mankovsky, Stefan Garkevich, Vaclav Messyash, the Czechs - a noncommissioned officer Wendelin Roglichka and Gurney Hubert and others.

. "Anya Morozova and her girls - recalled many years later, Yang Tim - were spring and fuse all our affairs."

. About Anya, her girlfriends and friends to make a film, written numerous articles and books
. I would not like to repeat them, but made them worthy of even a simple enumeration.

. If at first successes were accidental - Anya, . example, . managed to steal from the Germans advanced mask design, . see part numbers, . stationed at the airfield, . - The acquisition of new assistants work was a sustained and continuous.,

. "What we need to learn for you?" - Asked by Tim Yang
. Everything - Anya said. - All of the airport, all of the air base, all of the air and ground defense. "

. Soon Anya handed a map drawn on its headquarters, barracks, warehouses, workshops, false airfields, antiaircraft guns, searchlights, precise designation of parking aircraft, with their number on each parking lot.

. Card forwarded to the Intelligence Staff of the Western Front
. As a result, the perfect after the raid burned twenty-two aircraft, twenty were damaged, three were shot down while trying to take off. Burned fuel depot. The airfield has failed for a week. And this in the days of fierce fighting!

The success of the bombing was reported in a summary of the Soviet Information Bureau. From that time on the benchmarks scouts Seschinskoy bombing an air base conducted systematically, despite the creation of false airfields, air defense network strengthening, etc.. After the death of Bones Povarova, accidentally stepped on a mine, Anya headed Seschinskoe underground.

. During the Battle of Stalingrad on the base was dealt a severe blow - dropped two and a half thousand bombs, incapacitated several dozen aircraft
. By this time Anna had their man at the headquarters of the captain Ahrweiler, commandant Seschinskogo airfield. That man was Wendelin Roglichka. He was able to extract information such as flight schedules, information on spare ground and even plans to punitive expeditions against the guerrillas. It was he who told Ana about leaving part of flight crews Seschinskoy airbase to rest in the village Sergeyevka. The guerrillas, carrying out a night raid on the "rest home", and destroyed about two hundred pilots and technicians.

In the early summer of 1943 the two warring parties were preparing for a decisive battle at the Kursk Bulge. Oriented in the Soviet reconnaissance aircraft carried out a series of powerful blows to the Seschinskomu airfield. During these devastating bombing of the Germans could hide in bunkers and bomb shelters, as Anya and her friends, draw the fire upon himself, the shelter served as a squalid cellar wooden houses.

. May 12, 1943 the Germans were amazed to hear that the Russian pilots were talking among themselves in French
. They would have been even more amazed if they knew that the raid of Soviet bombers and concealing them French squadron "Normandie - Niemen" directed modest-old laundress.

Anya's group not only to extract intelligence. The underground engaged in sabotage (spiked with sugar into gasoline, . sand in the machine guns, . abducted parachutes and weapons) and sabotage (for bombs and planes bombolyukam attached bombs actions, . which exploded in the air, . and the planes were killed "for unknown reasons" in an hour - a half after the flight).,

. July 3, 1943 underground at the airport noticed unusual revival
. Arrived lot of new equipment and crews. It was possible to overhear the conversations of pilots that will begin July 5 attack on the Kursk Bulge. The information was promptly transmitted to the Center and became yet another confirmation of already existing intelligence, . which helped to inflict on the enemy pre-emptive strike, and played an important role in the outcome of one of the largest operations of the Second World War,
. Only during the Battle of Kursk of the underground group Anya Morozova blew sixteen planes! Crews died, without having to radio the cause of the explosion. Began technical and investigative proceedings. Commander Sixth Fleet, the famous air ace Baron von Richthofen, complained in Berlin, accusing the aircraft factories in sabotage.

However, neither investigation led nowhere - Seschinskoe hiding one of the few where there was no traitor. Killed only got into the hands of the Gestapo for his own fault, Jan Man'kovskii and died as a hero, no one issuing. He declined the opportunity to flee, fearing it would ruin Lyuska Senchilinu, who became his wife and expecting a child. Killed, no one is granted, and Motya Erokhina. Shortly thereafter, in front of everyone, barely having time to take off, blew up three aircraft, which established mines Tim Yang. They were supposed to explode in an hour after departure, but the flight was delayed. By Seschi a wave of arrests. Yang Tim and Stephen Garkevich were also arrested, but fled, and Anya to take them to a partisan detachment. Managed to escape and most of the other underground.

September 18, 1943 Sescha was released. However Ani struggle against fascism did not end. She became a student of that part of intelligence training, which once served as Zoe Kosmodemyanskaya and Konstantin Zaslonov. After that, native lost her connection. And in 1945, received notice that she was missing.

In fact, the following happened. After the course radioman Anya in the group of scouts was sent to Poland in the rear of the enemy to reconnoitre the enemy's fortification system. On the night of July 27, 1944 over East Prussia landed paratroopers. It consists of eight scouts, led by Captain Paul Winged and two girls-radio operator - Zina Bardysheva and Anya Morozova, "The Swan". The Group was fortunate she was dropped on the high forest, and six parachutes remain on the trees betrayed the landing

. A few hours after landing, the group, . Gauleiter of East Prussia, Erich Koch reported, . that the north-east of Kennig-sberga found hanging on trees and chutes, with the help of dogs managed to find the rest, . buried, . as well as trucks with spare set of batteries to power radios and ammunition.,

. The report on the landing, dropped a distance of two or three night transitions from Hitler's headquarters "Volfshantse, many excited Erich Koch and all of its security services
. Especially since it happened just a week after the failed assassination attempt on Hitler in the same "Wolf's Lair". Besides Erich Koch was the largest landowner, who owned several estates in East Prussia. And all this attempted Russian! Not without reason, afraid of Koch that he can comprehend and fate of Wilhelm Reich Belarus, Cuba, killed scouts. Therefore, the search group and were sent a large force.

The Germans began the persecution and in the first brief battle group commander killed. But the same day the scouts suddenly came to the strongest line of the German long-term reserve strengthening - of reinforced concrete pillboxes, dragon's teeth, the trench. The line was guarded by no one, since the front was far. Our command of it was unknown. This was the first success. In addition, the scouts captured two prisoners of the military construction management Todt, from which you learn a lot of details about the line of fortifications "Ilmenhorst" extending from the Lithuanian border in the north to the south of the Masurian marshes. One of the prisoners spoke about prepared for the future of subversive groups from bases in the woods, equipped with arms, ammunition and food supplies.

. Anya was in the group indispensable: it is first thrown into the river in search of a ford, . then, . when the group was "surrounded by" a dozen German kids from a nearby farm, . removed Clothing, . one dress left to the children and managed to divert their attention, . while the other scouts went to the woods,
. She was handy knowledge of German.

For paratroopers opened a real hunt. In order to mobilize the vigilance of the population the Nazis burned the farmhouse Kleinberg, killed its inhabitants, and reported in local newspapers that did the Soviet paratroopers. Erich Koch, the torturers and murderers, nothing worth going to such a provocation.

The results of operations against parachutists interested Himmler himself, repeated calls from Berlin. Raids did not cease, day or night. In addition to combing forests police forces on a daily basis is allocated to the two regiments. Mobile teams on cars immediately sent to the places where the Germans were having traced the radio.

In a thunderstorm scouts came upon a post of German signalers. In the window was clear that the orderly is sleeping. "And what if I go, - has offered Anya. - If a German awake, I say that on the porch of a sick woman, ask them to help her. If you go to it, you it worth taking, and if not - shoot him. "So they did. The German came out, it was captured and interrogated. Valuable information from him received, but he said that the landing of paratroopers warned all - civilians and military units.

In the area of the city Goldap again came to the fortified line. There they found the German raid. Retreat was impossible, had fought to break through a line of soldiers. During the battle came to a German airfield, from which miraculously managed to escape and hide in nearby woods. Quickly send a coded message to the Center received the intelligence and then went along a fortified line, striking her on the map. At night back at the Germans had already combed the woods.

The next day, the Center received orders to return to the landing site, go to the road Kennigsberg-Tilsit and take under the supervision of the carriage on it and at the nearest highway. Scouts managed to find a convenient place from which the cops road. To send dispatches Anya and Zina committed multikilometer maneuvers. Their stations are on the most unexpected places: in the field, the garrison on the outskirts of cities, on the Gulf coast Kurishes Gough. Last night the girl had time to go far, turned out for the chain of enemy encirclement and returned.

From the report of Staff of the Third Belorussian Front: "From a reconnaissance" Jack "received valuable material. From dispatches received sixty-seven and forty-seven of information.

With starved. Telegrams from the new commander of the Center in early November 1944: "All members of the group - are not people, and the shadows ... They are so hungry, are frozen and chilled at his summer outfit, they have no strength to keep the machines. Please allow output in Poland, otherwise we are lost. "

But the group continued to operate, conducted reconnaissance, took languages, sent coded messages to the Center. In one battle group was surrounded.

Dispatches from "Swan": "Three days ago in the dugout attacked SS. "Jay" (Zina) was immediately shot in the chest. She told me: "If you can, tell my mother that I had done all that could. She died well ". And shot ... "

The survivors escaped from the encirclement, but lost each other. Anya with a portable radio for three days wandering through the woods until he came upon a special group of scouts from Captain Black.

Met with the Polish partisans, along conducted several operations. In one group was ambushed, Captain Black and the other scouts were killed. Again Anya escaped. She managed to enter the territory of Poland in Myshenetskuyu let, north of Warsaw. There, she still had a chance to stay alive, lost in the crowd of refugees and stolen. But she decided to continue the fight.

Anya discovered the Polish partisan unit, joined him and took part in the battles. In one of them was injured. She smashed his left hand. She even tried to joke: "radistki need one right."

Injured she hid in the forest with smolokura Paul Yasinovka, but got to raid. Morning of November 11, 1944 was the last one for her. She was surrounded during a raid, it is firing back, being wounded several times, and when it wanted to take captives, blew herself up walkie-talkie and a hand grenade.

. Poles buried her in a mass grave Town Gradzanuvle.

. February 16, 1965 the first television programs began showing the first national TV series 'Call the fire on himself'
. After the screening of the film World War II veterans, civic organizations appealed to the leadership of the Soviet Union with a proposal to assign Anna Morozova Hero of the Soviet Union.

. The title of Hero of the Soviet Union was awarded May 8, 1965 posthumously.

. Awards

. Order of Lenin
. Order of the Red Star
. Medal
. Order 'Cross of Grunwald' II degree (Poland).

. Memory

. At the Victory Park City Mosalsk the bust of the heroine.
. It is named after streets in the cities of Bryansk, Mosalsk, Zhukovka, urban settlement Dubrovka Bryansk region.
. In Moscow school N 710 a museum.

. Literature

. O
. A. Gorchakov, I. Pshimanovsky. Call the fire on himself
About. A. Gorchakov. Swan song

Filmography

Call the fire itself (TV series) (1965)

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