Nepenin Adrian( Vice-Admiral, the last commander of the Imperial Baltic Fleet.)
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Biography Nepenin Adrian
Adrian (Andrian) I. Nepenin was born October 21, 1871 in Pskov, in the family of hereditary nobleman, fine public servant. In the service received since 1889. He graduated from the Naval College in 1892 with the rank of midshipman.
. In 1895-1896 he served on the Black Sea Fleet on the gunboat 'Terets'.
. In 1897 he transferred to the Siberian naval crew and assigned to the seaworthy gunboat 'Majuro'
. December 6, 1897 elevated to the rank of lieutenant. Member of the Chinese Campaign 1900-1901 period. Since the beginning of Russian-Japanese War 'Manchu', who was at the Russian representative office in Shanghai, was interned. Nepenin volunteer arrived in Port Arthur. He commanded the destroyers 'Imperious' (10.05 - 10.06.1904), 'agile' (10.06 - 27.06.1904) and 'Sentry' (27.06 - 20.12.1904). During a torpedo attack the enemy at night on Dec. 2, 1904 gave the order to cover the body of the ship's flagship battleship 'Sevastopol'.
In the years 1906-1907 - a senior officer of the cruiser "Admiral Kornilov '. Since 1907 - Captain of rank 2. In the years 1907-1908 - the commander of the destroyer 'insightful'. In the years 1908-1909 - Commander of the 2 nd division of destroyers of the Baltic Sea. In 1909 - Commander of the 8 th division of destroyers of the Baltic Sea. Assigned to the 1 st Baltic navy crew.
In 1909-1911 the commander of the gunboat 'Brave'. Captain of rank 1 for the difference (1911). Since 1911, Chief of Staff of the current context of the Baltic Sea Fleet. In 1911-1914 Chief of Staff of communication Naval Commander of the Baltic Sea.
Founder and July 17, 1914 the first chief of the connection of the Baltic Sea. Organized the Baltic Fleet air reconnaissance and efficient service to intercept and decode radio communications Germanic
. The fact that most modern cruiser fleet germanskogo "Magdeburg" slit his belly on the rocks by the lighthouse Odensholm - a matter of chance: the fog.
. What the divers found at the bottom next to the corpse of a ship clerk, embosom leaden sashes secret codes kingsmarine - good luck.
. In order not to frighten her, commander of the Baltic Fleet, Admiral Essen announced divers strict reprimand, notify the crews of all ships
. Then the divers decide to quietly sent into extraordinary leave.
But then - then everything was natural. Codes were transferred to Captain 1 rank Adrian Nepenin known in the Navy a saying "To think something should be" gradually stripped down to a personal password "dumato". Kaperang led communication service Baltic Fleet. This unprepossessing name was the pseudonym of Naval Intelligence. Nepenin, . young lieutenant in the past hell of Port Arthur, . own eyes seeing the death of the battleship Petropavlovsk, together with the Admiral Makarov at the gates of his native Harbor, . understood: without precise knowledge of plans and intentions of enemy action the Baltic Fleet doomed.,
. Codes with "Magdeburg" expands the possibility of maritime intelligence
. Besides prudent Nepenin long been ordered to radio intercepts of enemy negotiations, record store, yet got the chance to read them.
. Now such an occasion presented itself.
. The Germans did not know that the codes with "Magdeburg" fell into the hands of Russian sailors
. But the debacle germanskogo fleet plus the reports of agents led them to the main enemy: the name Nepenin in Berlin was repeated more frequently than in St. Petersburg.
Essen died early. There followed a succession of random assignment to the post of commander of the Baltic Fleet, and as a consequence, toothless and chaotic actions of the Russian ships. In September 1916, the commander of the Baltic Fleet was appointed Rear-Admiral Nepenin - with production in the vice-admiral.
. Immediately, . with his old associates in the service connection, . began to prepare a fantastic operation, . which should have become crucial in the campaign of 1917: to bring into the sea all the main forces of the fleet, . raise in the air all 108 "Muromtsev", . to strike at Germany's maritime logistics bases and landing at Konigsberg.,
. "Alas, - exclaimed biographer Nepenin - all of this work was to throw a revolution in the dustbin of history."
. Since it became known about the events in Petrograd, the situation in the 'naval capital' of the empire (in Helsinki) was rapidly heat up
. The ships began killing the officers, more similar than 'revolutionary retribution', and on settling personal scores with the most demanding commanders.
Nepenin in such a situation could not find anything better than to hide the revolution of sailors. He forbade the shore, but the silence was not going. Newspaper published in Helsingfors, wrote about the Revolution opened, it welcomed all workers' meetings, and Nepenin pretended that nothing happened. Perhaps hoping that still go into reverse ...
Such behavior Nepenin to no good result. Excitation sailors pas ships reached the highest degree, and already at half past seven in the evening the same day Nepenin in a telegram to the chairman of the Duma was forced to announce: 'to' Andrew ',' Paul 'and' glory 'revolt. Admiral Nebol'sin killed. Baltic fleet as a fighting force now does not exist. What I can do '. Less than an hour, but after a first flew the new dispatch: 'Mutiny on almost all courts. Nepenin '.
. The February revolution was for the fleet bloody March: only, according to official data, matrosnya raised bayonets, in pieces, stuffed under the ice 120 naval officers.
. At the battleships sailors under the command of Army agitators staged a real massacre
. And if the 'St. Andrew' due to his commander Captain rank 1 Ottovich George Gaddi large loss of life was avoided, then the 'Emperor Paul I' blood flowed in the river. Baltic Fleet Commander Vice-Admiral Adrian I. Nepenin virtually no sleep, trying with his staff to find a way out of this situation.
. After the February Revolution Nepenin declared its support for the Provisional Government, so the sailors were not going to touch
. Decided to simply shift their power. By the thousands for a rally, they chose a new commander of the fleet - Admiral Maksimov. His aboard respected for humane treatment of the lower ranks. Nepenin same behaved provocatively. He said that it will relinquish the post only on the orders of the government.
Then the morning of March 4 to board the 'Krechet', the headquarters of the ship fleet commander, arrived a crowd of armed sailors. They demanded that Nepenin immediately went with them on the station square for a meeting of deputies of the Duma, arrived from Petrograd. The commander went to the pier and surrounded by sailors headed for the exit from the port. At the gate Nepenin waited another group of sailors. As later became clear that there were people who planned to enforce the 'verdict of the revolution'. Shots rang out. The commander was killed.
The name of one of the executioners Admiral is well known. But he did not try to hide. His name was Petr Grudachev (1892-1978). At that time he was a young sailor, coastal company of mine Defense. In his book 'purple by civil', published in Simferopol, in 1971, he recalls: 'I stared at the admiral, as he slowly descended the ladder ... She remembered the stories of sailors of his cruelty, inhuman treatment. And my stiffness, confusion retreat: before me was the enemy. The enemy of all the sailors, and, therefore, my personal enemy. A few minutes later the verdict of the revolution was carried out. None of the four did not flinch hand, nobody's gun misfired not ... '
. The death of the admiral was beneficial to the Bolsheviks - they were already toying with the idea of transforming the imperialist war into civil war, and Nepenin position was expressed to them bluntly: "My ships on his shooting will not"
. His death was advantageous to the Germans, they never learned about the operation of Baltic fleet, scheduled Nepenin in 1917, but also as head of Naval Intelligence, he caused them a lot of trouble.
. An eyewitness and participant of the tragic events of Lieutenant Tirbah wrote: 'The same evening I took the command headquarters and a truck ..
. I went and searched several dumps dead officers, while in the end did not find the body of Admiral ... He brought it to shore apartment komflota, washed and dressed him (he had but two gunshot wounds had three bayonet wounds), ordered a coffin and arranged a funeral the next day ... No sooner had we to do this, as there came a crowd of sailors and was required to indicate the graves of the cemetery priest Nepenin. But he said he did not know ... So grave was left untouched '. It is to this day is the Russian Orthodox Cemetery in Helsinki
. Bukhara Silver Star II degree (1893)
. Order of Saint Stanislaus III degree (9/4/1900)
. Order of St Anne's III Class with Swords (28/12/1900)
. Silver medal in commemoration of military events in China 1900-1901 years (1901)
. Japanese Order of the Sacred Treasures IV degree (1902)
. Order of St. Vladimir of IV degree of Swords (11/10/1904)
. Order of Saint George of IV degree (3.9.1905)
. Silver medal in memory of the war of 1904-1905 (1906)
. Badge of the garrison of Port Arthur (1913)
. Order of St. Stanislaus I Class with Swords (19.1.1915)
. Order of St Anne's I Class with Swords (14.3.1916)