NEMITTS Alexander( Vice-Admiral of the Soviet Navy)
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Biography NEMITTS Alexander
Rod Alexander Vasil'evich Nemittsa originates from the ancient knightly house 'beaver stone' on the River Rhine. Presumably in the early XVIII century Nemittsy moved to Poland and then in Russia, where he purchased land in the province of Bessarabia Khotyn County. In the north of Moldavia, in the village Kotyuzhany, the birthplace of the future admiral, at the village cemetery preserved tombs of three generations Nemittsev on heraldry ranked documents to the Russian 'hereditary nobility'.
Alexander Nemitts was born July 26, 1879. His father, Basil Ferdinandovich, although who owned a small parcel of land, the landowners are not engaged in activities, had a law degree and worked for the election of a magistrate in Odessa. Mother - Sophia Appolonovna nee Kuznetsova from the nobility of Kherson province, who served in the Navy. In his autobiography, . on the side of life, . Alexander writes: "... I was born in the family spoke in Russian, was baptized Orthodox Christian, . grown from childhood in an Orthodox church, . Like his father and mother knew and felt the Russian and loved and still love, . know and I know the birthplace Russia ',
The family gave him a good upbringing and education. From childhood it was a highly developed sense of honor, dignity, duty and responsibility for their work, love and devotion to their homeland. It is well mastered mathematics, read a lot, beautifully painted, knew German and French. While living in Odessa and rotates among Black families, in an atmosphere of breathless sea, glorious naval tradition, he has established itself in the desire to become a navy and devote his life to the fleet.
Father died young and her mother gave her son in the Marine Corps, who in 1899, Alexander graduated with honors Nemitts. Then start the service on the Black Sea Fleet squadron.
In 1902, the midshipman Nemittsa sent to the responsible mission to the Russian Ambassador to Turkey. In Constantinople, he found himself in the center of a complicated diplomatic game between the Russian and Germany's ambassadors. In an attempt to attract the Ambassador of Germany Alexander Vasilyevich to his side a reminder of his alleged German blood, . young midshipman, . forgetting etiquette, . in the presence of the diplomatic corps, . throws in his face: 'I, . an officer, . gave the oath of, . that should never change it, . and remain faithful to her throughout, . ever! To the last drop of blood, . whether, . whatever kind that blood was not '.,
. In 1903, after completion of the Artillery Officer class, Alexander Nemitts again returns to the Black Sea, serves as an artillery officer on the ships, as both a teacher and school gunners electrician
In June 1905, a rebellion broke out the sailors on the battleship 'Potemkin', and followed him to the school board 'Prut'. There was a massacre, which resulted in four sailors from the 'Prut' Alexander Petrov, Ivan Black, Dmitry Titov, Ivan Adamenko sentenced to death. Execute the sentence was ordered to exemplary company pupils electrician, commanded by Alexander Nemitts. The young officer refused to carry out the shameful role of the executioner and for himself personally and for their subordinates. In this situation, the fleet command was extremely disadvantageous contrive a new process, and 'cause Nemittsa' barely managed to hush up.
. At the trial of members of Sevastopol uprising of 1905 and the revolt on the cruiser 'Cahul' sailors asked Alexander Nemittsa to participate as their counsel
. Thinking that the rebels repent, commander of the fleet agreed and allowed Nemittsu protect the lower ranks. Gradually, with twenty people Nemittsa defendants were two hundred participants in the uprising. Despite all the ingenuity of protection, yet four people were sentenced to death. At the risk of his position, Nemitts seeks abolition of death penalty for convicted.
Here's how he remembered this episode from his life: 'As soon became known to the verdict, the lawyers came to my house: the last exit, Aleksandr Vasilyevich, you ask the Black Sea Fleet Commander. We understand that it is now night and Admiral sleeps. We understand what it threatens your career. But tomorrow morning will be too late.
The palace Admiral H. I. Skrydlova long time arguing with guards, and his adjutant, finally, at my request and asked the old man awakened to his office. Describes my request: old sailor fell into a painful hesitation. Outlines the latest argument: as a Christian, do not take that sin on your soul, your excellency! The old man takes out a folder with the verdict and wrote to me: 'Replace the death penal servitude'. Life convicts had been saved '.
Looking ahead, we must say that after the February Revolution of 1917 and the overthrow of the autocracy Black Sea Fleet sailors have taught Alexander Vasilyevich memorable address, where the Nemittsa to protect sailors from the violence. It was the highest award for an officer of the fleet at that time and the recognition of the people.
For 'liberal' Nemittsa his defense was not convicted impunity. For this he was summoned to a duel, and although the caller did not appear, the case was publicized, and Alexander Vasilyevich was tried, sentenced to four months' imprisonment.
Practically this officer his career could be ended, but came about by accident and in 1907 lieutenant Nemittsa appointed to the post of staff officer Naval General Staff. Working in the History Department, the Naval General Staff, Nemitts thoroughly acquainted and exploring Archive Russian-Japanese War of 1904-1905. This has resulted in his work:
. - 'Strategic Study of Russian-Japanese War at Sea' (issued by the Maritime Academy in 1909-1910, respectively);
. - 'Study of Russian-Japanese war at sea period Command Fleet, Admiral Makarov' (published in 'Sea collection' in the years 1912-1913);
. - 'Russian-Japanese War at Sea' (15-second volume of 'History of the Russian Army and Navy', 1913);
. - 'Essays on the history of Russian-Japanese war' (Naval Academy, published in 1912);
. - 'Essay on Naval Operations Russian-Japanese war' (Naval Academy, published in 1912-1913, respectively).
. The result was a work of "Applied Strategy", published by the Naval Academy in 1913
. It should be emphasized that it was a significant step forward in developing the foundations of the theory and practice of decision-making on maritime operations. Establishment of creativity, the struggle against dogmatism in the theory of warfare at sea significantly distinguished the work of a. V. Nemittsa in educational practice of the Naval Academy. This book has for many years a textbook for senior naval officers not only the king, but the Soviet fleet.
In 1927 A. V. Nemitts for his works on naval strategy and the lessons learned from the Russian-Japanese War, was awarded the title of professor of the Red Army.
War captain 2 rank A. V. Nemitts met in the office staff officer of the Black Sea operational part of the Naval General Staff, and from the beginning was assigned to General Headquarters Supreme Commander.
Balance in 1914, he held, visiting with the instructions of bids, fleets and on the land front, directly taking part in the battles.
In 1915 he asked to go the Supreme Commander for the Navy and was appointed commander of the gunboat 'Donets'. In subsequent years, took part in the hostilities of the Black Sea Fleet in various positions, showing the skill, courage and heroism.
In 1917, there was a great event in the life of Alexander Vasilyevich: he married Anastasia Vrubel - my beloved sister of the famous Russian artist and the widow of a naval officer with five children. This marriage was destined to be happy, even though they have lived together for only 16 years old. Anastasia died in 1933 after a serious illness and was buried in the cemetery Danilov Monastery in Moscow. On the rest of her life Alexander has kept her sense of the brightest and most heartfelt gratitude for the intervening years together.
In September, 1917. Black Sea Fleet Commander Admiral Kolchak, calling to his cabin Nemittsa, which the Provisional Government has assigned a rank of Rear Admiral, has announced an order according to which gave him command of the fleet.
. After the October Revolution and the establishment of Soviet power, Rear Admiral A
. V. Nemitts went over to the Bolsheviks.
In this difficult situation, he saw his task in the maintenance of armed and combat ready status of the fleet. To this end, he tried to carry out military campaigns and exercises, but despite these efforts and the revolutionary upsurge of the sailors, the military discipline in the Navy still falling. Impacted here and Anarchist ferment among parts of the Black Sea.
So, when the meet crop up in the Black Sea cruiser 'Breslau' were nominated ships of the fleet, the battleship 'Free Russia' willfully left the position and went to Sevastopol. Perhaps it was too 'the cup' A. V. Nemittsa his whole life accustomed to the clarity, diligence and discipline.
December 13, 1917, temporarily passing the post of Chief of Staff of Navy Rear-Admiral M. P. Sablin and leaving his family in Sebastopol, Alexander went to the GHQ commander of the Romanian front to the general D. G. Shcherbachov, which was subordinated.
What he wanted from Tcherbatcheff? Maybe he was expecting from him any explanations or instructions on how to operate the fleet commander in the circumstances? Now answer these questions, probably not. On the report of the Supreme Council of the Sevastopol Naval College in Petrograd, not having understood the situation and were not clear what, why and where he went, for the abandonment of the fleet has sentenced a. V. Nemittsa to death.
It is difficult to challenge its decision, but the share of injustice in it is: a man who protected the lives of sailors in the days of Tsarist reaction - they have also been sentenced to death. Return to Sevastopol after this point was not, and Alexander, leaving the service, initially went to Kiev, then a private person settled in Odessa.
A further service. V. Nemittsa was solved in. I. Lenin. That is what is left of this decision: 'Lenin reads a letter from a member of the Defense Council of Ukraine A. A. Joffe from 22 June 1919 on the situation of the Black Sea Fleet and measures to strengthen it to take on the subject of the former Black Sea Fleet Commander Admiral A. V. Nemittsa. "After that wrote wrote a note zampredrevvoensoveta of E. M. Sklyansky: 'Ioffe highly recommend this Nemittsa ... See him, he is very displeased Ignatiev. Lenin '.
As a result,. V. Nemitts given assignment division chief of the Eastern Front, but the circumstances were very different
. In August 1919, . during a major offensive and the retreat of Denikin red fronts, . held legendary raid on the rear of several warring armies, . which entered the history of the Civil War as a model of strategic maneuver, and for many years been studied in military academies,
During this period the commander of the 45 th Division of the Red Army on the Rumanian front I.E. Yakir arrived in Odessa. In connection with the 45 th Division is moving from the Crimea 58-Panzer I.F. Fedko a long delay until. In Odessa already landed housing Baron Schilling, in Nikolayev - General Vannovskogo, he rushes in Kiev. From the north - the gang Petlyura and Makhno. Neighborhood complete. Attempt I.E. Yakir break the connection with parts of the 12th Army by rail to Vapniarka by a 45-th division ended in failure.
Chief of Staff of Nemitts suggested that the only correct solution at the moment: focus of the 45 th, 47 th and 58 th divisions into a single fist, creating a southern group of forces and break through. The plan supported Gamarnik, and Yakir took him to the action. The troops raided the Southern Group Petlurites at the station Popelnya, September 19, released Zhitomir and went to join forces with the 12-th army.
In the battle of Sandy Nemitts was twice wounded in the leg, but remained in the ranks. Consequences of injuries were severe, and A. V. Nemittsa had to be evacuated to Moscow. October 27 order of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic? 290 Alexander Nemitts for this transition was awarded the Order of the Red Banner.
. In late 1919 - early 1920 the Red Army finally dobila Denikin in the South and Kolchak in Siberia, and only a small group of whites led by Wrangel had been strengthened in the Crimea
. The Soviet Union was a respite, which had to be used to prepare for the destruction of the last campaign of the Entente.
February 6, 1920 at a meeting of the Politburo of the CC RCP (b) participation in. I. Lenin's decision to appoint 'Admiral A. V. Nemittsa Naval Commander of the Republic '. This was the third commander of naval forces (komorsi) after in. M. Altfatera and E. A. Behrens. Komorsi be a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic. Multifaceted activity was Nemittsa in these years. It was necessary to create naval forces in the South, . coordinate the actions of forces Dnieper fleet with the troops of the Southwestern Front, . organize the defense of the north-western Black Sea, . support troops of the Red Army in the final defeat of Mousavat-White Guard units in the south of the Caspian Sea,
. Difficult to continue to be the situation in the Baltic and the North of Russia. Of particular concern to the Council of Labor and Defense caused fuel shortages in the country. Delivery of the Baku oil prevented the predatory actions of the fleet of British invaders and Whites in the Caspian Sea, had taken refuge in the Persian port of Bandar-e Anzali. To destroy the fleet, it was necessary to eliminate its base. The challenge, therefore, was to ensure that the strike at the Navy in international waters and the port of Persia, with which the country is at war.
On the significance attached Enzeliyskoy operation indicates that the decision for surgery was discussed at a joint meeting with the Commander in Chief. S. Kamenev, the commander of naval forces of the Republic of A. V. Nemittsa, People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs,. V. Chicherina and twice submitted for approval in. I. Lenin.
May 1, 1920 A. V. Nemitts signed a directive to the operation. All responsibility for consequences resulting from the response of Persia and England (with which Russia is also not at war) were attributed entirely to A. V. Nemittsa.
The intention of the High Command of the port of Bandar-e Anzali supposed to take a sudden assault force from the sea, with the support of a small detachment of the Army of the Lankaran. The operational plan was designed headquarters of the Volga-Caspian Flotilla. On the morning of May 18, 1920 a detachment of ships flotilla approached the Anzali. The enemy has not had a strong opposition: the firing points on the shore were quickly suppressed, and a single attack of torpedo boats reflected. British invaders took the terms of surrender, and the remnants of Whites in the sea were destroyed.
This ended the combat activity of the Volga-Caspian Flotilla. For their courage in the struggle for the liberation of the Caspian Sea from the interventionists and the Whites flotilla was awarded the Honorary Red Banner of RSFSR Central Executive Committee and Honorary Banner of People's Commissars Military Revolutionary Committee and the Azerbaijan SSR.
Despite the shortness of time and limited scale, the operation was of strategic importance. As a result of war operations in this direction has been discontinued, . the Caspian Sea is set for complete domination of the Red Fleet, . country was able to freely export oil from Baku, . considerably strengthened the position of Soviet power in Transcaucasia,
Follow the instructions in. I. Lenin, who demanded to send a 'best efforts ... in particular, make marine resources' in the south of the country to fight the fleet of the French invaders and Wrangel, commander of the naval forces of the Republic of hastily set up naval forces in the Black and Azov Seas. The complexity of this task was the fact that all the major bases and ports were destroyed, ships and vessels seized or damaged by Whites.
The main attention was drawn to the creation of defense north-western coast of the Black Sea. Thus, within the boundaries of the Dniester River to Kherson was organized by the North-West fortified area, in Odessa, formed a naval base, for the defense of the lower reaches of the Dniester and the Dnieper-Bug estuary was formed Ust-Dnieper Flotilla. To the measures taken have been contained, but in some polling stations to defeat the naval forces of the enemy in advance of Wrangel in Northern Tavria. At the same time to facilitate the South-Western and Caucasian fronts were set up naval forces of the Black and Azov seas, with its headquarters in Mariupol and directly subordinate to komorsi A. V. Nemittsu. To strengthen the naval forces of the order of A. V. Nemittsa in their composition to the Sea of Azov were sent arms, equipment and personnel from the Baltic Sea, the Onega, Severodvinsk and the Volga-Caspian Flotilla. In the short time it was armed with about 40 ships, created an air division of the 18 land and sea planes, organized and formed Marine Expeditionary Division in 4600 bayonets and sabers.
Defeated in Northern Tavria, the Whites decided to continue the struggle against Soviet republic on the Don and Kuban, relying on the support of the Cossacks. August 14-17 on the eastern shore of the Azov Sea near the village of Primorsko-Akhtyrsky landed the main landing of General Wrangel C. G. Ulagaya. The landing was intended to expand military operations in the Kuban.
At the same time to ensure the actions of forces in the Azov Sea Fleet Naval Commander of A. V. Nemitts decided to lay mines in the Kerch Strait. So, on the night of 14 August detachment under the command of a. V. Nemittsa put minefield at the exit of the Kerch Strait in the Sea of Azov. In the rear of the enemy fleet was billed 266 minutes. To address directly from the landing with. G. Ulagaya A. V. Nemitts decides to block the mine area of Primorsko-Akhtarsk and landed at the village of Kamyshevatskaya kontrdesant of the Marine Expeditionary Division. Landing kontrdesanta was unexpected for the opponent and put him in an impossible situation: enemy landing was surrounded on all sides. As a result of subsequent joint action Kuban Army, Marine Expeditionary Division and the Azov Flotilla Whites were defeated and the remnants ulagaevskogo assault were dropped in the sea.
Fighting in the Azov Fleet, which directly involved a. V. Nemitts played a major role in the fight against the forces of counterrevolution in the south in summer and autumn of 1920. Of particular importance was assistance to the fleet forces of the Caucasus and South-Western fronts in their combat operations against enemy landings.
For the first time in the history of naval warfare modern fleets was landing kontrdesanta. This operation is instructive that was well-developed plan for its implementation, ably organized force management, operational support is thought. It was a brilliant example of a. V. Nemittsem his theory of action outlined in the 'Application Strategy' in practice. Using his personal experience of mine barrage of artillery and action in the area of the Bosphorus in the First World War, A. V. Nemitts skillfully organized fighting fleet of technically superior naval forces P. N. Wrangel on the Azov Sea. Azov Sea has been cleared by the White Fleet.
We must bear in mind that besides following the Southern campaign in 1919, he remained still sick. In the winter of 1920, when troops M. V. Frunze broke through Perekop, A. V. Nemitts out on the ice through the Strait of Kerch on the Crimean peninsula. He led the squad sailors through the hole in the ice and hummocks, leaning on a stick, because the leg was not yet set foot.
In December, 1921. Nemitts wrote a report with a request to release him from his post komorsi and transferred to a teaching job, first in the Air Force, and then - to the Naval Academy. He did not stop his activity to participate in the construction and strengthening of the Navy.
From 1922 to 1924 A. V. Nemitts performs special assignments at the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR, and the order of the chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR to. E. Voroshilov on December 17, 1929 N 719 'Teacher of the Naval Academy Nemitts A. V. assigned to critical assignments for People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs and the chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR 15 December 1929 '. On instructions RVS USSR in 1924, he wrote a 'Strategic Review of the First World War at Sea' and 'service in the navy headquarters' for the Academy of the Air Force.
In 1929, a. V. Nemitts worked hard as chairman of the Governmental Commission for Defense of the Black Sea coast and makes the results of this work report of the Commissar-voenmoru.
Heavy injury and concussion, great moral and physical overload in the civil war have left their mark, and in 1930 a. V. Nemitts for a few years knocked out of action due to serious illness. As a result of disease Alexander loses all rumor, but still 'crippled, deaf' he returns to work.
. In 1938, he was under orders of the Naval Staff, wrote a book 'The work of the Naval General Staff' which is due to the outbreak of war did not come out of the press
. Also, for unknown reasons were not finalized and published memoirs A. V. Nemittsa 'recent past of the Russian fleet on personal memories'. Miraculously surviving copy of the prospectus poluistlevshiye these memoirs was discovered in the museum 'Panorama defense of Sevastopol'. This is just the very same manuscript, which he read and. S. Isakov before the war.
In 1941 the Soviet government assigns a. V. Nemittsu the rank of Vice Admiral. Activities Alexander Vasilyevich during the Great Patriotic War was associated with the work of Professor of strategy and tactics of the Naval Academy. After the war he wrote in his questionnaire sheets: 'He took part in the hostilities in World War II - in the Azov Flotilla'. Apparently, his combat experience in the Azov Sea and the Azov handy, and subsequently to the Danube Flotilla. During the war he, with his usual thoroughness, wrote 'The military geography of the theater of operations of the lower Danube' and 'waterway of the Danube'. Would like to think that these works a. V. Nemittsa useful for our sailors Danube Flotilla in Iasi-Kishinev operation and in subsequent fighting on the Danube.
In 1947, having served in the Navy 54 years, Alexander, of Discharged. He moved to Sebastopol, and settled on the street Lunacharskogo, 42. Despite his advanced age, the admiral could not sit idly by, and he went to work in cartographic-proof-office department of the Hydrographic Service of the Black Sea Fleet. Co-workers tried to file a petition for review of his pension, but Nemitts "thanked and strongly stated that he did not need anything". His modesty goes to extremes.
The secretary N. G. Kuznetsova A. G. Gagarin twice passed the request of the Commander in Chief of the need reordering A. V. Nemittsu pensions. The fact is that retirement, he received the maximum pension 1200 rubles. With the introduction of new banknotes, he began to receive 120 rubles. In connection with the new law on the appointment of military pensions, the lame-duck stock and retirement, pension appointment was significantly increased. A. V. Nemitts was supposed to receive as a vice-admiral. However, from writing a statement asking him to reconsider retirement assignment, he categorically refused. After the departure of H. G. Kuznetsova from the post of Commander in Chief, no one else that was interested. Thus A. V. Nemitts the end of his life content with a pension of 120 rubles per month. He has repeatedly said that all funds earned he spent on it to treat his daughter, living in Yalta. For himself, he spent next to nothing. Always wore a military uniform, which was worn for decades.
In the years 1953-1954 Alexander began to complain of pain in the heart. He said everything would be nothing but 'engine' may work intermittently, and at night was bad sleep, I felt physically weak. He appealed to the doctors very rarely. Colleagues asked the doctors from the military clinics and hospitals to control and treatment of Alexander Vasilyevich. However, he insisted that the doctors did not come and did not bother him.
Last 7-8 years he has lived continuously in Yalta, the elder daughter Varvara. Employees hydrography periodically visited him. But the years took their.
October 1, 1967 Alexander Nemitts died of heart failure. He was buried with full honors, at the central avenue of the cemetery Kommunarov in Sevastopol. At his grave, the means of the Ministry of Defense, was erected a marble monument. His image is immortalized in marble in the form of admiral.
As a military man, he no doubt had a talent manager, fleet commander courage, courage officer. His military service and work were marked by the Order of Lenin, two Orders of Red Banner, medals, decorations and medals of the Russian pre-revolutionary times, the St. George's arms for bravery, foreign orders.