SECRETS Alexander( One of the senior commanders of the Volunteer Army, Major-General)
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Biography SECRETS Alexander
Secrets Alexander Stepanovich was born Aug. 8, 1881 in the village Krasnoschekovskaya a noble family officer WSC. This village, named in honor of the first generals of the Don 18 century Ivan and Fyodor Krasnoshchekova (the heroes of many historical songs emerged only in 1911 and had been transferred to some farm Chernyshevsky yurt. Including farm Chernovskaya and secrets.
Don graduated from the Cadet Corps (1899), hundreds Nicholas Cavalry School (1901). After Nicholas Cavalry School in St. Petersburg secret was enrolled cornet in the Life Guards Ataman Regiment. Then a quotation from the genealogical collection with. Koryagina and K. Sekreteva:
Volunteered to serve in the Russian-Japanese war and earned there fighting the Order of St.. Vladimir 4-th degree. After the war he returned to the same regiment, but soon was forced to leave the Guard and was certified to the reserve. From that time a few years devoted equestrian sport, has successfully participated in equestrian competitions at the Rostov and Novocherkassk racetracks and among other awards took first prize for stoverstny mileage on his mare 'Maria Evenings'. In 1913, Mr.. enrolled in the 15 th Don Cossack regiment, and with the beginning of the First World War, was appointed commander of the 16 th Don separate hundreds. With her arms in the St. George won the award for successfully mounted an attack on the Austrian infantry. After the October Revolution in late 1917. returned to the Don as commander of 25-th (or 24 th) Don Cossack Regiment. Along the way, in Lugansk, fell into the hands of the Bolsheviks, and escaped execution only because of chance.
Note: Here's how to describe this episode in the book and. N. Opritsa: 'On the Art. Kondratovka were planted in the car were arrested general secret and ur. Schipilev, also for delivery in Novocherkassk. The General Sekreteva, consisting of the party in 60 people arrested, transported the previous day in Lugansk. Cossacks Lugano village decided not to allow the export of more than Don officers from within the region and repulsed at the station the whole party, was taken to the village where the houses pulled down, taking all with great care. However, soon arrived punitive expedition, which selected all arrested, and during a very brief exchange was slightly wounded in the neck general Secrets. Secret of the wounded had been left in the village, led rescued by the other night with flashlights to Lugansk and is rumored to have been shot in a gully '.
During the uprising the Don in April and May, 1918. commanded the 1 st Cavalry Regiment under the Novocherkassk and against the red parts of Voroshilov and Muhobortsa on Chirskaya direction. In 1919, Mr.. in the capture of Lugansk headed the team, already in the rank of Major-General. In May of that year, when General F. F. Abramov failed crossing the Donets from farm Podgorny, the general has secrets of his horse team on a special mission to break through with her to the rebels upper stems. The group consisted of two cavalry divisions (the eighth and ninth) and five batteries. General secrets secretly led his regiments to the bridgehead near the village of red Repnev. Hence the two hundred Kalmyk night swim crossed the Donets and went into the rear of the enemy. After that it took the division beachhead with survivors of the bridge and building on success, broke through to the rear of the Red Army, which joined with the rebels. Thanks to this successful maneuver began a period of new Cossack victories.
General secrets appointed head 9 th Cavalry Division (consisting of 4-th Don Corps general to. K. Mamantova; in his division were 8-I Mounted Brigade of General Kucherova, 11 Cavalry Brigade General Kalinin and 12 of the First Cavalry Brigade of General Kargalskogo). With this division, he participated in the raid Mamantova, not just to replace him as temporary commander of the Corps.
Sekretevskaya 12 divisions on Aug. 5, 1919 with the raid took Tambov. Then the city was taken by Kozlov, where the headquarters of the Southern Front red. Headquarters scattered, leaving behind property, and was captured by Trotsky's armored train (he only moved it on all fronts). August 13 Cossack regiments Sekreteva approached Bogoyavlensko, and in the evening on August 14th a detachment of three hundred Cossacks approached Ranenburg Ryazan province. It was an extreme point of moving the case to the north. August 22 Corps was ordered to return Denikin in the south, which was not done. And only re-order, with the threat to give the command shell on trial, was executed.
. Command Corps of Secrets took a dramatic situation.
. February 1, 1920, Lieutenant-General Mamas suddenly died under mysterious circumstances
. And the same day, acting commander of the Corps, General Pavlov made a terrible mistake:
. '1 February 1920, General Pavlov, received the order to cut output Budyonny Cavalry Group on Trade, held a naked body on the steppes along the left bank Manycha
. Severe storms and 30-degree cold for three days of transition have done their job - people are exhausted and barely reaching the horse, going to the trade and came under a barrage of artillery and machine gun fire. Tactical blunder in the choice of the route cost the loss of 7 out of 12 thousand people. Many of the survivors died from frostbite. Spirit of the shell was broken, and the news of the death Mamantova further upset the Cossacks. Killing two-thirds of Don cavalry. Pavlov was removed from command, he was replaced by Secrets. " (Article Candidate. ist. Science Tsvetkova)
Subordinated liked General Sekreteva for their care and for the smooth friendly attitude, called it 'our secret' and believed in his military experience. General also Krasnov, as the Don Ataman, not just in orders praised his valor, and while he affectionately called 'Sasha Sekretevym'.
4 Don corpus Secrets evacuated to the Crimea, but no posts from Wrangel not received.
General secret out of Wrangel was without a job in reserve. Wrangell, remembering the Don Republic Krasnov, suspected separatist sentiments in the Don and did not trust them. Secrets fighting general who is forced by the will of Wrangel idly by and watch the defeat of his army, and could not treat him polozhitelno.Sekretevu had to leave the Crimea, along with everyone.
. The troops, which turned into an army of refugees camped in Gallipoli and on the island of Lemnos
. Lower ranks first slept on the bare earth, then came the tents were dug dug. The Supreme Command of the rented accommodation in the homes of local residents. People (140 thousand, half of them civilians -) in poverty, hunger, and lived through the assistance of the Red Cross and the Entente, that is, the French and British authorities. The army was no use to anybody what to do next, no one knew, no Wrangell, nor Kutepov nothing but empty promises, it could not offer. Becomes eternal exiles would not all. And people began to think of returning.
Evacuated in 1920,. from the Crimea to Constantinople, and then after a year in Bulgaria, the general Secrets dejected. In Bulgaria gradually moved from Gallipoli and Lemnos abandoned to their fate remains white. In this year, and there was a shift in the minds of the general Sekreteva.
Yielding to her entreaties Union for Repatriation and the insistence of the woman he loved, he decided to return to the Don and was one of the signatories of the proclamation calling for the Cossacks to go there too. Propagandists returnee used his prestige among the Cossacks and drove around with him. But, once in Kaledin Nazarevskaya-shelf, well drunk, secrets told the crowd of Cossacks: 'All of you know me, fought together, together, and go home together for us there and hang. And we still go '.
His work outraged many of the Cossack officers and senior officers. Was an order to expel him from the list of all the Cossack units, and the Life-Guards Ataman Regiment deprived of his right to wear regimental form.
Note: Soyuz return home - was registered in Bulgaria 26.4.1922. Built by the Soviet secret service for the repatriation of Cossacks and Russian immigrants caught abroad in 1920. after fighting with the Bolsheviks. In the third month after its formation it appeared and the Cossacks, 'Change milestones' and pleading for the return to village. Kazakov at this time gathered the most in Bulgaria and Poland. On appeal returnees echoed several thousand Cossacks, among whom were officers and. Among them was known to the general Don A. S. Secrets. Along with the generals SW. Gravitskim AND. Klochkova and E. Zelenin, he signed a 'Declaration of the ranks of former White Army troops to the White armies' call to go home. For general joined about 15 people from senior officers of Cossack units, as well as many officers and men of the Cossacks. In early 1923 the entire Cossack camp, General Sekreteva was transferred to the USSR.
. Here is a wonderful 'Appeal' on October 29, 1922:
. The troops of the White armies
. Attack our associates!
. Hereby appeal, we notify all of you, . from now on we recognize in the quality of the Russia government current government Russia Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and ready to move on to serve in Rossiyskuyu Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army,
. We all give promise to be loyal citizens of the Soviet Republic and honest soldiers of the revolutionary army.
. Civil War and the years of emigration have clearly shown that the ideology of the white movement has suffered a complete collapse, because its essence is a deeply anti-government and acts against
. Thrown into the white emigration movement degenerated into a series of adventures, devoid of any ideological content was. Originated under the banner of national salvation movement white has long been a pronounced movement against Russia.
. Especially demonstrative and demanding stern condemnation is the work of Baron Wrangel, . for which the unfortunate situation of mass refugee and former army was a source of power and which leaves no attempts to resume an armed attack on Russia,
. Wrangel was not only poses a threat to a peaceful life in Russia, but also sells Russian arms, which we are honored to wear their pride. We observe Russian military units in the service of states not to Russia or to the Union, nor a friendly relationship. The undoubted crime against Russia is a blow to the rear of the Russia Red Army during its attack on the Poles, is a criminal and a constant readiness to fight against Wrangel New Russia on the side of its enemies. We can not sympathize, nor be responsible for this adventure.
. On the other hand, we must admit that the five-year existence of the Soviet authorities indicates that this power is recognized by the Russian people and enjoys his full support
. Come to us from Russia data clearly indicate that our homeland out of the band's initial revolutionary chaos and entered the path of creative creative work. On the international political arena, the Soviet government is the sole protector of the interests of Russia and its state sovereignty ...
We are confident that our example will entice him to all our honest comrade in arms. Long live the revolutionary Soviet Russia, our great motherland!
Alexander secrets, Lieutenant General, former commander of the Don Corps. Yuri Gravitsky, Major General, former head of the Markov division of the Volunteer Army. Ivan Klochkov, Major General, former commander of the 2 nd Brigade 1 st Cossack Division. Eugene Zelenin, Major-General, Assistant Chief Alexeyevsky Infantry Division. Dmitry Zhitkevich, Colonel, former commander of an infantry regiment Samurskogo. Vyacheslav Orzhanovsky, Colonel ranked as the General Staff, Chief of Staff Adjutant Kornilov division. Nicholas Klimovich, Col., former commander of the 1 st Sunzha-Vladikavkaz bellies Battalion. Michael Lyalin, Colonel, former commander of the armored train "United Russia".
. November 1, 1920, before leaving the last of volunteers from the Crimea, the heavy armored train, United Russia, was destroyed by head-on collision with a light armored train "George"
. This made themselves white, so they do not got a red. Stunning depth metaphysical gesture! With such an awareness of what happened Armageddon and the return to Russia signers. How terrible for the court.
Results from Sekretevym returned to Russia about 4 thousand people.
From the monograph Jacob Yurevich Timchenko 'Calvary Russian officer in the Soviet Union, 1930-1931 years. ":
'From the re-emigrants who returned to Soviet Russia in the 20's, the Red Army had taken only a few. So, from above 20 white generals who came to the USSR, only I. A. Slashchev And yes. S. Secrets were enrolled in the military-teaching work. The rest had to be content in the best case situation of small Soviet officials. Why only these two generals were provided Taka honor?
The fact that both of these generals were renowned White Guard commanders: Slashchev - Denikin, a secret - Don. It is after them because their calls are returning to their homeland, many other white immigrants. Therefore, the purposes of advertising the Soviet authorities took two generals to serve in the Red Army: Slashchev became a teacher of the school officers' "Shot" Secrets - the Moscow School of Cavalry the OGPU (!).'
. There are various testimonies that in Moscow and sweeter, and secrets began to drink heavily
. Behind them OGPU kept constant supervision. They went to visit, then these guests have written denunciations. But nothing but descriptions of drunkenness, in these denunciations were.
His incredible courage and 'turretless' Slashchev shows and serving in the Red Army. It looks as if the death.
Once parsing of military action during the Polish-Soviet conflict, he described the actions of the Red Command crassitude. The campaign was really unfortunate. Commanded then Budyonny, he also attended the parsing operations. Drawing his pistol, the legendary commander fired several shots in the direction of the stationary lecturer, but never got. Slashchev approached him and said calmly:
- How do you shoot, and fought.
But the other man did not miss. January 11, 1929, Mr.. Slashchev was killed at his home, ostensibly because of personal revenge, one of his students, although in time this murder coincides with the beginning of a wave of repression that had struck the former White Army officers in 1929 - 1930 he. Assassin quickly recognized the insane and the case closed.
They both knew that sooner or later it will happen and nothing can not change. Countries for which they fought and who gave the oath, there was no more. Homeland, where they returned with them able to do whatever he wants. And she did it. Slaschova killed earlier Sekreteva - a little later.
'14 August 1930 in Moscow, a wave of mass arrests of former White. Were captured by former generals Secrets Savvateev, Bobryshev, Nikolaev, Zelenin, and two weeks later they were joined by Gravitsky. In this same company and got a former general A white Siberian. I. Redko, in 1920 against the Reds in command of the forces of Tobolsk. It was also arrested many officers and former white political figures, in particular - a member of the Government Kuban Rada P. M. Kaplin.
All Whites to the former was accused of planning an armed rebellion and espionage. The verdict of the College of the OGPU on April 3, 1931 31 active member organizations of former White Army, was sentenced to death. The sentence was executed on April 8.
Among those shot were listed Generals A. S. Secrets (former commander of the 4 th Don shell), and. L. Nikolaev (Head 10 Don Division), and. I. Bobryshev (commander of scouts), A. I. Radish (commander of the forces of Tobolsk), S. K. Gravitsky (Alekseevskogo regimental commander), E. I. Zelenin (Brigade Commander 6 th Infantry Division), Colonel D. V. Zhitkevich (commander of the regiment Samurskogo), B. D. Makukha (convoy) and many others. "
Names under appeal Sekreteva 1922 and repeated in 1931 hit list is no accident. 'Fight together, together we will go home together, and we'll hang' - told secrets still in Bulgaria. Everything is exactly what happened.
Alexander Stepanovich secrets buried in a common grave at the cemetery Vagankovsky. At Alexander Stepanovich after the shooting left his wife and daughter. But their fate is unknown. It seems they were in the Gulag as members of the family.
Based on Article 1 of the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of 16.1.1989 A. S. The secret was rehabilitated, as well as other persons, held in the same case.
He had all the medals with swords to St. Stanislaus 1-th degree, inclusive; St.George weapons (EP 09/03/1915).