Peter SECRETS( Major-General, a monarchist)
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Biography Peter SECRETS
Secrets Peter Ivanovich was born on Feb. 25, 1877 in Odessa in the family of nobles of the Don Cossacks. Cossack village of Lower Chirskaya 2 nd Don District. Don graduated from the Cadet Corps, Nikolaev Engineering College (1897 to 1 st level). Issued an officer in the 15 th Battalion. Member of Russian-Japanese War 1904-1905.
He studied at the Warsaw Polytechnic Institute, but did not finish the course. He graduated from the Kiev Polytechnic Institute. The commander of the Training automobile company (30.08.1910-15.01.1915). Major-General (22.03.1915). Head of Russia's first military automotive school (15.01.1915-1917).
Nicholas II was a great lover of cars and has personally participated in many organized activities Sekretevym. But every step of the development of new kinds of forces required to overcome resistance to the military bureaucracy and the release of the next 'Highest Order'. Undoubtedly, Peter Ivanovich had uncommon energy, clout and talent of palace intrigue. Without these abilities, he would not have achieved such outstanding results, gaining thus far not only friends, but also a lot of enemies.
Some were jealous of his ability to accumulate in his hands, as they say, 'cash flow'. For all deliveries of equipment for a new kind of troops went through it and went through many thousands of vehicles and armored cars. Another wanted badly to ride on new cars at public expense.
And he was accused of embezzling money. There was even a criminal case. It turns out that digging under Sekreteva, and labeled in the War Minister Suhomlinova some generals at GHQ, trying to displace. Palace scandal came to the king. And Nicholas II, after hearing reports and entreaties to withdraw from the position Sekreteva ordered to discontinue the investigation, told him his full confidence in.
Rumors about the scandal has been set, but, as later revealed no evidence of his guilt was not. Sekreteva called 'pet' is not only Suhomlinova, but the king himself. What is an exaggeration. It is known that the secret 'solves problems' through the Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, resorting to a 'services' Rasputin. That was then known mechanism 'admission to the body' of Nicholas II, which was used by many.
General secret was a monarchist by conviction, and trust the king to him was clearly not unfounded. But for his beliefs, he soon paid arrest.
. A few days before his arrest and just before the February Revolution, February 21, 1917 Secrets gave a dinner in one of the best French restaurants of St. Petersburg, 'The Brothers Pivato' on Bolshaya Morskaya, 16
This was written in his memoirs, General Alexander Spiridovich 'The Great War and the February Revolution, 1914-1917', published in the emigre Panslavic Publishers, New York, 1961.
Until September 1916. Spiridovich ten years was the chief of the secret service of Nicholas II and his family. That is inseparable guarding the Emperor at Tsarskoe Selo, Petrograd, and in all trips, and during the war was in the Imperial General Headquarters. As a result of palace intrigues Spiridovich was sent to the mayor of Yalta, although it remained a man of more than aware. But surprisingly lighthearted fun, which held a dinner.
"After an interesting conversation with the commandant of the Palace, I went to dinner to General P. I. Sekretevu. In a separate study in Pivato gathered: Life With surgeon. P. Fedorov, his brother - Nikolai Petrovich, Senator Tregubov and C. P. Beletsky. S. P. Fedorov leaves tomorrow with the Emperor. Senator Tregubov appointed to some political office in the headquarters. Beletsky, something had to get a very important. Enterprising young general, Peter Ivanovich, for some reason decided to join us for this dinner.
All, apparently, knew what was going on, except me, a provincial. In a conversation began it soon became clear that Beleckij was appointed to the post of General Batyushin for the administration and counter-intelligence, and the struggle against speculation, and even with something very important. It was evident that Beletsky again pick up the course. About Protopopov, with the departure Kurlov, was an empty place. Competition disappeared. On the female half of the palace foundations Beletsky were highly. Did not like him as a man, but believed in its efficiency and omniscience. Once A. A. Vyrubova was delighted with him.
If he was - would not have killed Rasputin. Thought so. He knew how to protect. Wine unleashed Languages. In a cozy office all were happy and satisfied. Peter Ivanovich made fun of Duma members-revolutionaries. They have something to say. They have even compiled lists of people they would arrest.
- 'All of us, my dear Alexander, we all recorded on this little list. Written down and you are there, although you Yalta governor. There is they have such a gentleman Nekrasov. Here he is all of us and registered. All, all Golubchiks ... But we are not fools - he rubbed his hands Petro. - We're not fools. We both rolled our the trucks, how to put them pulemetiki, so all at once and will be sunk ... '
And General laughed heartily, in pouring glasses of wine, a good host. Laughed and know everything with. P. Beletsky, grinning puffing on a cigar Life surgeon ... Everyone seems to believe in the omnipotence of parts of Peter Ivanovich (he was in charge of all automotive parts in Petrograd and throughout the delivery vehicles for the army). All were calm. They all had plans for the future. I gave her the menu, asking for autographs of all the memory. All yielded handsome signature. That was Feb. 21, 1917, Mr.. Stores this menu, and to this day in its archive in 1948. We parted amicably.
For a long time I could not sleep that night, going over the Petrograd impressions of the day. It seemed strange and incomprehensible compare all that said, Dubensky, Voeikov, Protopopov, secrets, optimistic senator and many others. Who is right among them, who is mistaken. After all, they live in the same Petrograd, surrounded by the same political atmosphere ... And the idea was carried away in Tsarskoe Selo, the Emperor. "
Fun was more affected, for which concealed very worrying from a premonition of things to come. It is likely that the long sleep that night could not and secrets. After all, he could not understand the consequences of their words on trucks and machine guns, whether they are told not to a friendly dinner, but as a general's order.
'Roll out the trucks' and' put pumetiki y Sekreteva failed. Apparently, this was his last dinner, where he was' infectious laugh "and his threat more like a joke. Shooting machine guns to disperse the demonstrators demanded a serious political solution. Which could take only the king. What he, as you know, do not become. He just ordered the 'immediate end to the disorders'. Just do not say how.
Then it was already not funny. The next day, February 22, Nicholas II of Tsarskoe Selo went to the headquarters, and (from a few days later reported the abdication), and 23 February in St. Petersburg began a real February Revolution.
. If the threat Sekreteva use machine guns was a joke, his allusions to the Duma members-revolutionaries who were prepared lists for the arrest of their opponents, proved to be pure truth
In the days of the February revolution of Secrets still made a desperate attempt to benefit from new government. According to VN Sadykov, chairman of the Secretary of the State Duma MV Rodzianko, Secrets, arrived at the Tauride Palace in the early days of the revolution. He begged to give him the opportunity to 'work for the common sacred cause, at least in the role of <...> scribe'. And he managed to convince the new government, as he entered the leadership of the Military Commission of the State Duma.
But not for long. There he had a conflict with a member of the Petrograd Soviet, Bolshevik implacable and future red Marshal Kliment Voroshilov. Apparently, at the first joint meeting. Details of this conflict is unknown, but it is easy to guess that a monarchist secret and Communist Voroshilov to work together would not have. Voroshilov has decided to 'expose'. And away. Conduct of that sort of went to none other than Vladimir Mayakovsky.
Here's how it describes in his book about Sekreteve 'AUTOMOTIVE ACADEMY general SEKRETEVA. Century of automobile units dedicated to 'Gennady Kaninsky and Stanislav Kiriletz
'... In the Duma with Pyotr Ivanovich followed the conflict with a member of the Petrograd representative of the Life Guards Regiment K.E. Voroshilov. This conflict has led to the arrest Sekreteva, which was placed in a cell? 54 Trubetskoy bastion fortress March 3, 1917. Voroshilov, speaking on March 1 at the general meeting of the Petrograd Soviet of Workers 'Deputies, said: "The General put, I know'. And indeed, the secret was soon arrested. Detachment of soldiers driving school of seven, . who arrested the general, . guide future 'great proletarian poet' Warrior 2-th position of Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky, . served as a draftsman in a driving school and shortly before, . January 31, 1917, . received from the hands of General Sekreteva silver medal "For diligence 'on the tape the Order of St,
In driving school Mayakovsky 'settled' in October 1915 through the influence of 'stormy petrel of revolution' by Maxim Gorky, in order, as is the parlance of youth, 'squint' from the front. In an autobiographical poem in prose 'I myself' this episode of his biography Mayakovsky described as: '... BOAD. Now go to the front do not want. Pretended to be a draftsman. At night, learn from some engineer to draw cars ... Lousy time. I draw a (twisted) nachalnikovy portraits ... '. Later Mayakovsky often with pleasure, and not without pride, boasted to Gorky that her 'gay thing' arrest the general, which he did, apparently, being very drunk.
After his arrest Sekreteva Mayakovsky for a few days even takes command of the driving school, but it's not something that breaks the soul of a poet. February 28, 1917 he volunteered with the D. Tairov was asked the chairman of the Military Commission of the State Duma, Colonel General Staff, BA. Engelhardt 'to elect representatives to the Military-driving schools, to organize repairs of machines'. The fact, . as a poet of the new democratic order is complied with government, . unknown, . but it is well known, . he vigorously bustle of dismissal, . the fall is considered not eligible for military service and leaves accidentally fell down on him the post of chief driving school: 'I went to the car to the Duma,
. He climbed into the office Rodziankos. Milyukova inspected. Silent. But somehow I think he stutters. An hour later, tired. Gone. Took a few days driving school team. Guchkoveet ... '.
Drunk prank 'gorlana-leader', done in a burst of revolutionary fervor had no basis. All this is very similar to the banal revenge or settling scores by proxy - in this case hands impulsive genius.
One of the participants 'big merry company', which is arrested by General Sekreteva, artist-satirikonovets A. Radakov recalled: 'For what? This question was not raised ... Decided that if ministers had been brought to the Duma, should, therefore, and the gentleman there present ... Well, put the general in his beautiful car. He began to stutter so that he could not say anything '. Quite boorish remark - later, in 1937, many 'steel superintendents revolution' in the same situation not only started to stutter, but lost consciousness, and some 'made in his pants'. As for the stuttering General Sekreteva, we note only that the natural excitement at such an unexpected arrest are likely to do with it. This speech defect to a small extent, he suffered from childhood
. In support of unreasonable arrest and said that, . that for the entire period of many months of stay in detention in the fortress with the general Sekreteva not been withdrawn any testimony, . He had never been questioned, . he was not charged with any offense,
. At least, . in the verbatim records of interviews and testimony, . data in 1917, the Extraordinary Commission of Inquiry, . established by the Provisional Government "to investigate the illegal actions of the post of former ministers and other officials and gathering investigative material, . sufficient to expose and condemn the highest dignitaries of the empire ', . and other material traces of any investigation against General Sekreteva could not be found,
Enemies and envious at the general Sekreteva was, apparently, a lot. Was too great list of applicants for a drive on car at the public expense of their wives, tesch, lovers, and God knows who else. A machine was not enough, so accounted for, and many refuse. Besides the huge amount of money which he had the right to dispose of, gave rise to various rumors, gossip and distance charges. More from 1914 to Petrograd, it was rumored that the secret is purchased in England was not the best cars and extremely expensive. Said that he was there under the influence of 'speculators, rogues', thus questioned the competence Sekreteva in the automotive business, and the most 'evil tongues' even hinted at the personal greed of General.
All these rumors were totally unfounded, since 1914, when the allies themselves starved machines, it was impossible to buy in England, good cheap cars. These rumors made up for a wave of harassment by the 'democratic intelligentsia' and resulted in the so-called investigation, a point which put actions, or rather, complete failure of the Extraordinary Commission of Inquiry. Inactivity because there was no reason, no 'clues' to any action. Although the 'holds' persistently sought. This is evidenced by material interrogation general SS. Khabalov, court counselor I.F. Manasevich-Manulova, Gendarmerie General S.P. Beletsky, general-historiographer D.N. Dubenskov and former Minister of War, AA. Polivanova. It turns out that honored the general served several months in jail for no reason - just for the company.
The fate of Mayakovsky's awards he has received from the hands of General Sekreteva. It is connected with the Petersburg cafe 'Stray Dog'. Here, on the Italian street, near the circus Ciniselli, going bohemian crowd. Among the regulars was a noisy company futurist David Burliuk, Vassily Kamensky, Velimir Khlebnikov, and, of course, Mayakovsky himself. Once the end of 1917 he lost at cards and decided to leave the medal on bail. 'Who will rescue the hope of Russian poetry? " He turned to the officers, sitting in a cafe. The officers were willing to lend money without collateral, but the poet could not allow this. This medal was sold, changed several owners and is now kept in the museum of Vladimir Mayakovsky in St. Petersburg ... '
Imprisoned general, the new authorities dismissed March 31, 1917. And on April 3, Lenin, standing on the confiscated in the automotive parts 'abandoned' armored car at the Finland Station, already read his 'April Theses'.
In prison Secrets stayed exactly from the February before the October revolution, coup-inclusive. His prison life described by the doctor Ivan Manukhin in his' Memoirs doctor i.i 1917-18. My work assistance to prisoners during the Revolution '(' New Journal '. N 54. New York, 1958.) It also mentions some members of that memorable lunch in a restaurant Sekreteva 'Brothers Pivato' who entered the prison gruel in the Trubetskoy bastion fortress.
'23 April, almost two months after February, the first time I visited the castle ... On this day, I met with their patients. No thorough medical examination, no questions requiring honest answers the doctor that day because of the presence of soldiers could not be - only a fleeting first acquaintance.
Among the prisoners - two women: A. A. Vyrubova and E. V. Sukhomlinov. Overall impression: sickly, exhausted, haunted people, some in tears ... There were different monarchists: Ministers Makarov, N. A. Maklakov, . Protopopov, . Sukhomlinov, . SHCHEGLOVITOV, . Sturmer, . from the secret police and gendarmerie Beletsky, . Vissarionov, . Gerasimov, . Kafafi, . Commissioners, . Kurlov, . Spiridovich, . prominent member of the Union of Russian People Dubrovin, . Governor-General of Finland Zane and his assistant Borovitinov, . Voyeikov, . Andronicus and Manasevich-Manuilov, . Secrets, etc. ..,
. Speaking now with detainees in private, I, first of all, to hear their complaints
. They were hungry (except Burda with a piece of bread and anything else they were given), transfer from outside have been banned, walking 10 minutes a day, a meeting for 10 minutes once a week across the table ...
. Protecting Trubetskoy bastion consisted of representatives of all military units of the Petrograd garrison
. These were people angry before the ferocity towards prisoners, ready to just about all of them to kill. Before the prisoners have repeatedly floated out of the corridor of their marketplace shouting curses and threatening: "all to smash! all! all! and dissected by Suhomlinova sustavchikam !'...
. The mood in the castle from day to day became more threatening, and a tragic end for the unfortunate monarchists seemed to me all the inevitable ..
. I realized that all the old means of medical care - care and feeding - is useless, and in the present situation, even naive. There was only one way to salvation - removal of prisoners from the castle in any other prison, or, if possible, in the hospital.
. When there were only four (Sukhomlinov, the court sentenced to life imprisonment in the fortress, Shcheglovitov, Beletsky and secrets - all three of the most physically fit), I suggested that H
. K. Muravyov - to avoid fears of safety, that bastion of completely emptied - to put here, if only for a short time, criminal, and meanwhile, I'll take and the remaining. Ants disagreed
. A petition for removal of remaining prisoners hastily he turned to me too late, . immediately after the October Revolution, . when to do this was not possible (only in the last minute released Sekreteva, . and Sukhomlinov under the Bolsheviks was automatically released by the new law, the elderly).,
. So, the day of the Bolshevik Revolution, almost all starorezhimniki of the fortress were taken
. They were sent to the house of detention at Furshtatskaya street.
Conditions of detention in jail had other than the Trubetskoy Bastion. Meetings with relatives could last about four hours, with the will to deliver all of anything, the grip of terror was not, the presence of the guard almost did not feel. By order of the special commission of inquiry concluded they were gradually let go of all four sides, and the rest, using the turmoil of the October days, just themselves has flowed without prior arrangement. "
. The secret was one of those "utek" last minute ", after the October revolution, 31 October, in an atmosphere of revolutionary chaos
During the Civil War, traces of his lost. The point of his life - the creation of a new kind of troops, he could not continue. Parts were disbanded, looted. Neither the Provisional Government or the Bolsheviks, he had no relationship. If the first put him clear of that in jail (just in case), the latter would have easily shot him.
King, to whom he swore allegiance, denied it, and sat under house arrest as a private person. Apparently, therefore, in the Civil War Peter Ivanovich did not participate.
Secrets acted as it did almost all the monarchists of the king's entourage. Left for France. He left immediately, but in 1919, before disappearing with friends and relatives. He may have something even hoped.
He left Peter Ivanovich with a naive faith in the revival of Russia Empire. And as with the illusion of return of the monarchy in Russia. In France, he worked in the automotive industry. Consisted inspector for communication with foreign organizations in the factory 'Panhard and Levasseur'.
As an emigre publication 'Cossacks abroad' in 1930 is a summary of his report before the meeting Russian emigre organizations in Sofia with the title 'The political situation in Europe'. If you believe that, . who outlined the contents of the report, . Secrets then tried to convince listeners, . that all European countries are waiting for 'Resurrection of the Great Russia' look and the new state-outskirts of the empire to suffer from their independence and want back in her bosom,
. There are two things, and expounded the report fib from an excess of patriotism, or the general really broke away from reality and wishful thinking of. Of course, only one: Secrets remained a monarchist and nostalgic for the times, which he completed for himself dinner parties in the restaurant 'Pivato Brothers'.
. He believed, like many, his temporary stay in France, called on all in anticipation of returning to study
. Created in Paris, Russian School of Automotive and technical courses. Founder in 1930, Russian higher military engineering courses in Paris, who worked on the program Nicholas Engineering Academy. Worked as a lecturer on courses.
October 30, 1935 held diploma course last group of trainees (finished its existence in 1935). He taught at the Higher Military Academic Courses Lieutenant-General NN. Golovin Paris. Chairman of the Union of Technical Troops.
I remember Peter Ivanovich and his Cossack roots, and arranged for the Cossacks on the streets in Paris Versinzhetoriks Cossack house with a waiting room, library and campus.
Temporary stay in France was his last illusion. October 28, 1935 Petro secrets died from an attack of angina pectoris. Buried Oct. 30, 1935 in the cemetery at Sainte-Genevieve-des-Bois.
Order of St. Stanislav 3rd st., SW. Anna's 3rd st, SW. Stanislaus 2-nd st. with swords, SW. Vladimir 4 th century., SW. Vladimir 3rd st., . light bronze medal in memory of Russian-Japanese War 1904-1905, . Medal to commemorate 100-year anniversary of the war of 1812, . Medal to commemorate 300 years of Romanov dynasty, . Officers Cross of the French Legion of Honor, . Italian Order of the Crown 2-nd st., . Bukhara Gold Star Order of the 3rd degree.,