Gunnar Myrdal (Myrdal)( Swedish economist)
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Biography Gunnar Myrdal (Myrdal)
December 6, 1898, Mr.. - May 17, 1987
. Memory of the Nobel Prize in Economics, 1974
. with Friedrich von Hayek
. Swedish economist Karl Gunnar Myrdal was born in a small village Solvarbo in central Sweden, the son of Karl Adolf Myrdal, a railroad employee, and Sophia (nee Carlson), Myrdal
. His life as a child on the family farm had a heavy impact on its economic and political philosophy into adulthood, and philosophy, which he once described as a combination of 'Jefferson liberalism and the Swedish peasant democracy'. In the 20 years of age, he called himself 'the usual Swedish village boy ... who inherited earnestly and correct attitude to the value of work '.
In 1919, Mr.. M. enrolled at Stockholm University and in 1923, becoming a qualified lawyer, opened his practice. The following year he married a Stockholm student Alva Reimer, who under the name of Alva Myrdal later became a world-renowned sociologist, member of UNESCO and often helped her husband in the works in the social and political fields. She died in 1986. In Myrdal couple had one son and two daughters: Jan Myrdal - a writer who became famous in Swedish literature and policy circles, Sissel Bok - a philosopher with a worldwide reputation; Kai Felster - sociologist.
Not getting full satisfaction from their activities on field of jurisprudence, M. returned to the University of Stockholm, where he studied economics under the leadership of Knut Viksellya and Gustav Cassel. After receiving in 1927. doctoral degree, he was appointed professor of political economy. The day before the stock market crash of 1929. M. arrived in the United States as a Rockefeller Foundation Fellow. Watching the economic and social crisis of the Depression period, M. imbued with the desire to somehow influence the economic policy.
In 1933, after he spent the academic year in Switzerland, returned to the University of Stockholm, where he spent the bulk of his academic activities. He replaced Cassel at the helm of a university department of political economy and finance. Many years later, in 1961, he was appointed professor of international economic relations at the university and became the founder and director of the Institute of world economy.
M. carried away by 'pure' economic theory only in the period 1925 ... 1933. It was then in his doctoral thesis 'The problems of pricing in terms of economic developments' ( "Prisbildningsproblemet och Foranderiig ieten", . 1927) he explored, . as the expectation of uncertain market conditions in the future affect the behavior of firms at the microeconomic level,
. Formulation of the problem M. anticipated many studies of risk and uncertainty.
In 1931, Mr.. In an article published in the Swedish economic journal "Ekonomisk tidskrift '(" Ekonomisk lidskrift "), M. further developed the theory of interest rates and cumulative of processes Viksellya. In this work, which appeared in English in 1939. called 'monetary equilibrium' ( "Monetary Equilibrium"), . He introduced the concept of economic analysis of "ex ante" ( 'wait') and "ex post" ( 'exercise'): "ex ante" refers to the expected value of this economic variable; "ex post" - sold to (or actual) value This variable,
These two terms are of crucial importance in the theory of economic dynamics, developed in Stockholm in the 30-ies. Consumers or businesses (the so-called economic actors) base their decisions on the values of economic variables "ex ante" (for example, on expected prices). Thus, in the process of establishing economic equilibrium, they have an impact on the implementation of variables "ex post" (for example, the actual prices).
Eden M. laid the foundation of what was later known as the Stockholm School of macroeconomics. He wrote a paper 'The economic results of fiscal policy' ( "Finanspolitikens ekonomiska verkningar", 1934), which contains proposals on how to strengthen fiscal policy to overcome the Depression. In this work he advocated for the sake of maintaining public confidence in the government deficit, which is formed during the Depression, would be covered by the budgetary surplus during the period following the Depression Recovery. In fact, the Stockholm School, . activity which was due essentially to the M., . developed models Keynesian policy before, . as published a book of John Maynard Keynes' General Theory of Employment, . Interest and Money '( "The General Theory of Employment, . Interest, . and Money "),
Once M. participated in several government committees, in 1935. He was elected to the Swedish Parliament. Spouses Myrdal jointly participated in the formulation of population policy in Sweden. In their paper, 'The crisis of population problems' ( "Kris i befolkningsfragan", . 1934) investigated the causes of fertility decline in Sweden and put forward in this area a kind of New Deal, . offers intensive housing policy and subsidies to large families,
. Many of their recommendations have been implemented over the next decades. In addition to measures to encourage couples to create large families, the authors advocated a universal sex education for high school students in order to reduce unwanted pregnancies. The result was that around the couple emerged Myrdal controversial and they became the target of numerous jokes satire.
When M. in 1938. visited the United States to read a series of lectures at Harvard University, the Carnegie Corporation asked him to lead a large group of researchers studying the 'Negro problem'. The trustees of the corporation commissioned a 'comprehensive study of blacks in the United States, which shall be conducted with complete objectivity, as a social phenomenon'. Given this order, M. and his group, which also included Ralph Bunche, prepared the study "The American Dilemma: the Negro problem and modern democracy '(" An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy "), which was published in two volumes in 1944. and recognized by many one of the most significant studies of race relations in America.
In this work, M. rejected a purely economic approach and analyzed the sociological, political, historical, legal and institutional foundations of behavior of white against black Americans, and likewise the reaction of blacks on racism. 'American dilemma' is not only formed in the appropriate academic thought, it also had a profound and lasting impact on public policy. Careful study of discrimination in education, . example, . had a great impact on the United States Supreme Court case 'Brown v. Topedskogo management education', . which was approved by the principle of 'separation, . but equal 'education and outlawed racial segregation in public schools,
M. returned to Sweden in 1940. after the Nazi invasion of Norway, but in 1943. was sent to the United States in the position of Economic Adviser to the Embassy of Sweden. In 1944, Mr.. He published his famous book 'warning against postwar optimism' ( "Varning for Fredsopti mism"), in which he predicted the advance of serious economic difficulties after the war, especially in the United States. As Chairman of the Government's economic commission, he stressed the danger of the continuing stalemate and lack of balance in world markets. Given these circumstances and taking into account the imbalance in the industrial structure of Sweden, it is recommended to introduce an elaborate system of government planning. He also predicted a greater stability in the planned economy of the Eastern bloc, and advocated the expansion of trade with.
As a free and independent vocal economist, M. never been a reliable social democrat, he could not obey political discipline. In 1947, Mr.. He left the government and assumed the position of Secretary General of the UN Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), a division of the United Nations. There he established an independent economic secretariat, whose reports are used by high reputation. Upon completion in 1957,. his work in ECE, he joined his wife, who was in India as the Ambassador of Sweden, and began a 10-year study of problems of the underdeveloped countries of Asia (he did not recognize the term 'developing' in relation to those countries). The result of this study was the publication in 1968. book 'Asian Drama: A Study of poverty peoples' ( "Asian Drama: An Inquiry Into the Poverty of Nations")
. The central thesis of this three-volume work is in, . that only far-reaching reforms in the control of population growth, . distribution of agricultural land, . Health and education can result in rapid economic development of South-East Asia,
. Moreover, M. came to the conclusion that the 'soft government' in the region were too weak to overcome what he called 'cumulative forces of poverty'. According to Moscow, foreign aid from the West, which may in some special cases to play an important role if it is true aims, in general, be only a subsidiary factor. The book provoked everywhere laudatory resonance for its impartial approach and encyclopedic full richness of factual material, . despite the fact that the findings, . arising from it, . seemed too pessimistic compared with those, . which appeared in 'American dilemma',
The same pessimism about the conditions prevailing in Asian countries, was permeated with an address by M. the Stockholm Conference on Vietnam in the late 60-ies. Taking stock of American politics, he said that the main obstacle to self-determination for Vietnam was the "American aggression, which caused a general uprising of the Vietnamese people '. He claimed that even if the South-East Asia would threaten the communist seizure of communism could not have just as devastating to exacerbate the economic and social conditions in the region.
Compared with Paul Samuelson, Gerard Debreu and Kenneth Arrow M., who described himself as 'an institutional economist', had no significant impact on the main stream of economic theory. But his international influence, . opposite, . was enormously, . because he was one of the few economists - Nobel Laureates, . which deals with economic and social policy and has improved a wide range of disciplines in the social sciences,
In his view, an economist who does not take into account the impact of political and social forces on economic events, dangerous. In his book 'Against the Stream: Critical Essays in Economics' ( "Against the Stream: Critical Essays in Economics", 1973) M. Economists criticized the main stream of the weakening of attention to the moral basis of economic theory. For example, he argued that the belief that competitive markets (the 'invisible hand' of Adam Smith) are characterized by 'optimality' is justified, if ignored the problem of distribution.
Memory Nobel Prize 1974. Economics was awarded to M. with Friedrich von Hayek, 'for fundamental work on the theory of money and economic fluctuations and in-depth analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena'. The following year, when M. spoke with his Nobel lecture, a sense of pessimism in it already expressed by him in 'Asian Drama', sharply increased. In his speech, he criticized the United States for what they tied foreign aid programs with their narrow national interests. He denounced 'causing the consumption of' the West, which he regarded as a factor increasing poverty 'Third World'.
As a scientist M. famous both at home and abroad. Working in the University of Stockholm, he was also in 1973 ... 1974. a visiting research scholar at the University of California, and the next year - an honorary visiting professor at New York University.
After a brief stay in hospital Myrdal died in Stockholm on May 17, 1987, Mr..
In addition to the Nobel Prize Myrdal also shared with his wife, Alva Peace Prize of the Government of Germany (1970). He was a member of the British Academy of Sciences. American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. He has received over thirty honorary degrees of European and American universities.