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ANDREEV Nikolai Andreevich

( Artist)

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Biography ANDREEV Nikolai Andreevich
Nikolay Andreyev (1873-1932). Creation of Nikolai Andreyevich Andreyev is now a classic of Soviet art. For more than thirty years of creative work they performed numerous sculptural portraits, monuments, plaques. He was also a master of drawing and created a series of portraits of eminent contemporaries. He left his mark in theater, having issued a series of performances, and in the application. But the central work of his life was to create 'Leniniany', which included nearly 120 sculptures and more than 200 graphic images. Andreev was born in Moscow. His father, a carpenter, to give her son an education, gave him in 1885 in Central Stroganov School of Technical Drawing, which he graduated in 1891. Then, the future artist continued teaching at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture (1892-1901). He was first a volunteer at the picturesque branch, then the sculpture, where he studied at C. M. Volnukhin. In creative development Andreev played a significant role influence P. P. Trubetskoy, with which the development of Impressionism in Russian sculpture. Perhaps the closest to Impressionism at the Andreeva Portrait turned L. N. Tolstoy, made from life in Yasnaya (1905). The movement of light and shadow plays a crucial role in creating the image, facilitating the identification of special concentration, introspection great writer. In 1904 - 1908 years Andreev performed portraits of many artists: P. D. Boborykin, L. N. Andreeva, AND. E. Repin F. I. Chaliapin. In all these portraits undoubtedly influence of Impressionism. Cut-off modeling is combined with a strong structural form. In early 1900-ies Andreev enthusiastically engaged in pottery and majolica, which is associated with its search for expansion opportunities of decorative sculpture. Andreev experimenting with colored glazes, is seeking new colouristic sounds, sometimes using color in the portrait, which gives the image a kind of urgency. Of white engobe is made, for example, a portrait of. P. Lenski (1906), the color of interest in the portrait of L. N. Tolstoy (1908). Best majolica sculpture - 'Bacchante' (1911-1912), a kind of assertion passionate, wildlife man. By the way bacchantes sculptor turns a few times, in these sculptures is evident Nouveau style. Andreyev was fruitful fascination with folk art, which is affected in the creation of a series of images Mordvin peasant girls and Tula (1910 - 1913). However, the best piece of pre-revolutionary period of the artist's work was not small sculptures, and a large monument, which required the creation of hard work, - a monument H. V. Gogol (1904 - 1908). In preparation for the work on the monument Andreev went to Ukraine, . make sketches, . collect material for the bas -, . representing characters from Gogol's 'Inspector', . "Evenings on a Farm near Dikanka ', . 'Mirgorod', . 'Dead Souls' and 'Petersburg stories',
. Andreev sought to identify the stylistic features of the plastic early and late writer of things, completely different image simulating romantic heroes 'of the Petersburg stories' and characters 'Evenings on a Farm near Dikanka'.
. The writer's own sculptor depicted sitting in heavy thought
. Gogol is the last, tragic period of his life, lost faith in the meaning of his work. He looks like a big bird with wings. Just came very close to the monument, you can see the writer's face, illuminated by a sad smile. Psychological expressiveness, the inner drama of the image perceived by contemporaries as the embodiment of the tragedy of the creative person and have been in tune with the atmosphere created in Russia after the Revolution of 1905.

. Gogol monument - a work of great talent - shows the humanistic nature of creativity Andreeva, reveals his psychological orientation
. Working on the monumental works, the sculptor does a bust-monument to Dr. EF. P. Haas in Moscow (1909), projects monuments T. G. Shevchenko (1914) and the printing pioneer Ivan Fyodorov (1902). After the October Revolution Andreev actively involved in the implementation of Lenin's plan of monumental propaganda. By the first anniversary of the October Revolution, he created a monument to Danton, which was opened at the Theater Square in Moscow. Winter 1918 began the hard work of the sculptor of the Statue of Liberty allegorical monument to the Soviet Constitution. In addition to this statue, he made at that time a number of memorial plaques and reliefs, other than deep realism and rigor of a formal decision.

A full expression of the realistic trend in the monumental sculpture was a monument. N. Ostrovsky in Moscow, created by Andreev in 1928. After two of the contest, where the sculptor has consistently received the highest mark, he started in 1927 for the construction of the monument to the life-size. Ostrovsky depicted sitting in armchair. He is dressed in a free smock, his head slightly bowed. Motion quietly, naturally. The clear silhouette of the monument fits well in the niche of the wall of the Maly Theater, to which it is installed. Monument Ostrovsky - a clever solution mature master, well thought-out problem in detail. In 1920 Andreyev were also performed monuments A. I. Herzen * and H. P. Ogarev, plaque with a portrait in. G. Belinsky and other works. In 30-ies of the artist leaves the work on the monument: doing projects monuments T. G. Shevchenko Kharkiv,. I. Zhelyabov for Leningrad, two sketches of the monument in. I. Chapaev for Samara, two projects A monument. P. Chekhov for the installation of the building near the Moscow Art Theater.

However, the basic content creation Andreev in post-revolutionary era was hard work to create an image in. I. Lenin. Launched in 1919, it lasted until the death of the master. Before St. Andrew's was a difficult and responsible task of creating a portrait image of the leader to head a major coup in the history of mankind. In the process of working closely watched Andreev Lenin directly to his office and at meetings, creating countless sketches, catching the slightest gesture, noticing the characteristic facial expression. Based on these rapid sketches later, he created his brilliant portrait pictures in. I. Lenin in engineering pencil, sanguine, colored pencil. In 1920, Andreev begin to create portraits of Lenin in sculpture. The first experience in this regard was quite successful - the sculptor modeled from nature plasticine Lenin's head, catching the very lively facial expression. It was then established which became one of the most popular sculptures - 'Lenin was writing', where Andreev handed immersion in the work of Vladimir Lenin, its detachment from the outside.

. Quite a different mood expressed in the later work - 'Lenin, listening to the report' (1925)
. Lenin, it listens to an unseen speaker: head up, eyes strained. In another, more dynamic solved statue 'Lenin-speaker' (1926). A distinctive feature of the image created here - the intransigence of the opponents.

. As a result of prolonged work in 1929 Andreyev was completed three versions of a portrait, executed on orders of People's Commissars: 'Lenin listening all', 'Lenin, entered a meeting', 'Lenin presiding'
. Andreev came to an increasing generalization to multidimensional image. In 1929-1930 years the sculptor working on the theme of 'Lenin on the oratorical platform'. In this work, he just moves away from the cameras-ness of the first portraits, approaching the monumental decision. Yet, these works seem transient, as compared with the last sculpture 1931-1932 period - 'Lenin - the leader', St. Andrew's final 'Leniniana'. Lenin stands on the platform, leaning on her right hand. His head is raised in a few vigorous turn. In terms of individual power, authoritativeness, energy. This is undoubtedly one of the most successful images in. I. Lenin Unfortunately, Andreev failed to finish the whole sculpture. In the sketch of the artist after his death her brother, the sculptor has completed B, A. Andreev, and often helped him earlier in his monumental work. Sculpture 'Lenin - vozhd'-crown a truly titanic work masters, she embodied the synthesis plastic image.


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