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DEUTSCHE Niklaus Manuel

( Artist)

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Biography DEUTSCHE Niklaus Manuel
Niklaus Manuel (Deutsch) (ca. 1484-1530). Speaking of the Swiss art of the Renaissance, we should note its direct link with the German school of painting. Close contacts of painters of the two countries cooperate even in the Middle Ages, and in the transition from Gothic to the Renaissance period, they have made themselves felt with particular force. This is evidenced by such works of the painter, as the Kon-rad Witz, who sought to combine in his masterpiece of Gothic forms with the rigidity of the Renaissance understanding of space. And although the Swiss master in this time largely charmed Flemish painting, the German influence did not diminish. Instead, the XVI century, their role is growing so that you can already speak of an original Swiss version of German art. Before the Swiss artist faces the same ideological and artistic problems, and that the Germans, but they are naturally involved in the sphere Renes-sansnoy culture.

. However, the Swiss remain fully and originality of its national art
. Plot structure of their work is largely connected with the living conditions, in which the artist works. Their paintings, even if they are written on the historical or mythological subjects, reflect the many aspects of contemporary reality, both socially and in terms of domestic. With regard to the style of these works, then it is most specific in the chart, while the painting tends to be the style of German artists.

All these features are inherent creativity of the majority of the Swiss masters of the Renaissance: X. Leah Elder (c.. 1465-1507) and the Younger (c.. 1490-1531), Urs Graf (c.. 1485-1527/28), T. Shtimmera (1539-1584), H. Manuel (Deutsche).

Niklaus Manuel Deutsch, nicknamed, was born in Bern in a wealthy burgher family. He first studied painting on glass, and only then, techniques of painting and graphics. In addition, he was well educated, as evidenced by at least elected by them for pictures stories. Deutsch, like most of Swiss artists, was a knight, that is, military. This, of course, left a special mark on all his work. The typical life-lancers change high jinks and military actions, their love of social independence and freedom-all this created a specific atmosphere, which produced works Doetsch. And, of course, the artist could not devote their energies to this task. Deutsch dedicated to fine arts only about ten years of his life. Already in 1523, when he had received the post of governor-general in Erlach, the artist eliminates the studio and throws painting.

. All contributed to achievements of this event and the nature of the wizard, restless and peevish, and his life with the permanent relocation and military campaigns (as Landsknecht, he participated in the Italian campaign in 1516 - 1522 years)
. However, he did not interrupt the creative activity. Deutsch drawn to literature, becoming a writer, a follower of the Reformation. From his pen fall comedy 'about the pope and his priesthood' and 'On the contrast between the Pope and the Christ'.

Visual Heritage Doetsch small. About unpreserved monumental works can be judged only on rare replicas of machine-forms. For example, painting a Dominican convent in the Bern 'Dance of Death' is similar only in a small picture of 'The girl and death' in 1517. And its stained glass windows, which the artist did for the courtroom the same city, we do not have a clue.

However easel works H. Manuel speak for themselves. They are typical of German Renaissance painting features: interest in nature and its realistic depiction, propensity to brutal and dynamic perception of reality, to dramatic effect.

. One of the earliest works of the master-altar Berne Brotherhood of St. Luke and Eligio (1515, Bern, Kunstmuseum)
. On the outer wings are depicted rounds of this brotherhood of artists at work: Luke wrote Madonna, and Eligius busy chasing. Deutsch appears here experienced bytopisatelem: in detail, he reproduces the atmosphere in which the work of contemporary painters and artisans. The artist builds his compositions on a Renaissance model: the laws of perspective, he writes interior, full of curious details, and has it in a natural position for a human figure. In the background is visible through the open window a magnificent landscape full of serene poetry. But such sentiments are rarely in the works Doetsch. They were soon replaced with a stormy drama and expressive forms of rigidity. This is due to the influence Baldunga Green, a German master, who conquered the minds of all Swiss artists of the time.

One of the best paintings Doetsch, written in a manner Baldunga Green - 'The Beheading. Of John the Baptist' (ok. 1520, Basel, public art collection). Painting has neither didactic nor moralizing meaning. It is rather evidence of dramatic perception of reality by the artist, . because the scene is interpreted by a contemporary artist event (more on this show and landscape details, . and, . more, . clothing, costume characters lansquenet to the executioner and costumes noble German ladies of Herodias and Salome),
. A special expression of the artist is making the image of the evening sky with the rays filtering through the clouds and the rainbow. The light flashing like snatching away from the dark details of architecture and landscape, the figure of actors. From this scene is filled with even more drama and mystery. Trembling, the viewer peers into the characters, which claim a stretcher with the body of John, terror cover in the form of a hangman's head who was executed in the hands of. Dissonances, designed to highlight the tragedy of the composition, sound figures of two richly dressed ladies standing next. All this is written with great skill, worthy of a great artist.

Among the works, imbued other, hedonic attitudes, can be called 'Court of Paris' (Basel, public art collection). This thing is written in the Italian manner with tempera on canvas, in its imagery rather inclined to the works of L. Cranach.

But more typical of H. Manuel is a dramatically expressive figurative elements, consistent expression of which he remained.


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