QUY Cesar Antonovich
(1835 - 1918), Russia's composer, member of the "Mighty Five", a music critic and scholar in the field fortifications, engineer-general. Promoted the work of MI. Glinka, A.S. Dargomyzhsky, contemporary Russian composers. Romantic opera "William Ratcliff" (1868) and others, songs, compositions for children.
Born January 6, 1835, Mr.. in the city of Vilna, the son of a Frenchman, remained in Russia after the campaign of 1812, and Julia Litvinko Gutsevich. The five-year child Cui already played on a piano melody he had heard of the military march. In ten years, his sister began to teach him piano playing, then the teachers were Herman and his violinist Dio. Learning in the Vilna school, Cui, under the influence of Chopin mazurkas, is forever his favorite composer, composed the mazurka at the death of one teacher. Who then lived in Vilna Moniuszko invited to give talented youth for free lessons of harmony, which continued, however, only six months. In 1851, Mr.. Cui enrolled in engineering school, four years later was promoted to officer, and another two graduated from engineering academy. Abandoned when her tutor topography, . then teacher Fortification, . he in 1878, . after the brilliant work of Russian and Turkish fortifications (1877), . was appointed professor, . occupying the chair in his specialty at the same time in the three military academies: the General Staff, . engineering and artillery,
. The earliest romances Cui written about 1850. ( "6 Polish songs," published in Moscow in 1901), but seriously to develop his compositional activities began only after the end of the academy (cm. memories of Comrade Cui, playwright VA. Krylova, "Historical Journal", 1894, II). The text of Krylov written songs: "The Secret" and "Sleep, my friend," the words Koltsov - duet "So eager soul. Tremendous importance to the development of talent was a friendship with Cui, Balakirev (1857), . who was in the first period of creativity Cui his advisor, . critic, . teacher and partly staff (mainly, . part orchestration, . remains forever the most vulnerable party invoices Cui), . and familiarity with his circle: Mussorgsky (1857), . Rimsky-Korsakov (1861) and Borodin (1864), . as well as Dargomyzhsky (1857), . who had a great influence on the formulation of the vocal style Cui,
. In 1858, Mr.. Cui married pupil Dargomyzhsky, M.R. Bamberg. She is devoted to orchestral scherzo F-dur, with the main theme, B, A, B, E, G (letter of her name) and persistence of the notes C, C (Cesar Cui) - an idea obviously inspired by Schumann, who had in general a great influence on Cui. Execution of the scherzo in St. Petersburg in a symphony concert of the Imperial Russian Musical Society (December 14, 1859) was the public debut as a composer Cui. Around the same time include two piano Scherzo C-dur and gis-moll, and the first experience in opera form: two act opera "The Caucasian Prisoner" (1857 - 1858), later transformed into a three-act, and set in 1883. the stage in St. Petersburg and Moscow. At the same time is written one-act comic opera in a light genre of "son of the Mandarin (1859), set to play at home with Cui, with the participation of the author himself, his wife and Mussorgsky, and publicly - in the Arts Club in St. Petersburg (1878). Reform initiatives in the field of dramatic music, . partly under the influence of Dargomyzhsky, . in contrast to the conventions of Italian opera and platitudes expressed in the opera "William Ratcliff" (based on the story by Heine), . initiated (in 1861) had previously "The Stone Guest,
. Unity of music and text, . careful design of the vocal, . use them not so much cantilenas (which is still there, . which requires the text), . as melodic, . singsong recitative, . interpretation of the chorus, . as an expression of the life of the masses, . simfonichnost orchestral accompaniment - all these features, . in connection with the merits of music, . beautiful, . elegant and original (especially harmony) made "Ratcliff" a new stage in the development of Russian opera, . although the music "Ratcliff" and did not have a national fingerprint,
. The weakest side of the score "Ratcliff" was orchestrated. Value "Ratcliff", . staged at the Mariinsky Theater (1869), . was not appreciated by the public, . maybe, . and because dowdy execution, . protested against which the author himself (letter to the editor "Saint-Petersburg Vedomosti), . asking the public not to attend representations of his operas (the "Ratcliff" cm,
. Article Rimsky-Korsakov in St. Petersburg Gazette on 14 February 1869. and the posthumous publication of his articles). "Ratcliff" reappeared in the repertoire of only 30 years (on a private stage in Moscow). A similar fate befell the "Angelo" (1871 - 1875, on the subject in. Hugo), where the same principles were opera its full completion. Placed in the Mariinsky Theater (1876), this opera in the repertoire could not resist and was renewed for only a few performances on the same stage in 1910, to commemorate the 50 anniversary of the composer of the author. The great success of "Angelo" was in Moscow (Bolshoi, 1901). Around the same time (1872) applies to "Mlada" (1 act; cm. Borodin). Near the "Angelo" in artistic completeness, and significance of music you can put the opera "Flibustier" (Russian translation: - "By the Sea"), . written (1888 - 1889) Jean Putting on the text and marching, . unsuccessfully, . Only in Paris, . on the stage of Opera Comique (1894),
. The music of the French text treated with the same truthful expressive as the Russian - a Russian operas Cui. In other works of dramatic music: "Saracen" (based on the story "Charles VII at his vassals" A. Dumas, op. 1896 - 1898, Mariinsky Theater, 1899), "Feast in the Time of Cholera" (op. 1900; performed in St. Petersburg and Moscow); "M-lle Fifi" (op. 1900, based on the story of Maupassant, performed in Moscow and Petrograd), "Mateo Falcone" (op. 1901, by Merimee and Zhukovsky, performed in Moscow) and "The Captain's Daughter" (op. 1907 - 1909, Mariinsky Theater, 1911, in Moscow, 1913) Cui, without changing dramatically its former operatic principles, gives (partly depending on the text) a clear preference cantilena. In a separate section should be allocated for children's opera: "Hercules of Snow" (1904), "Little Red Riding Hood" (1911), "Puss in Boots" (1912), "Ivan the Fool" (1913). In them, as in his children's songs, Cui showed a lot of simplicity, tenderness, grace, wit. - After the greatest operas of artistic importance are the songs of Cui (400), . in which he renounced the couplet form and the repetition of the text, . are permanently truthful expression of both vocal, . remarkable for beauty of melody and recitation of the studio, . and accompanied, . differs rich harmonies and beautiful piano sonority,
. Selecting texts for the songs done with great taste. For the most part they are purely lyrical - an area very close talent Cui, and he achieves it not so much a force of passion, how much warmth and sincerity of feeling, not so much the breadth of scope, how much elegance and meticulous finishing details. Sometimes a few bars on a very brief text Cui gives the whole psychological picture. Among the songs Cui and is narrative, and descriptive, and humorous. In the late works of Cui there and narrative and descriptive, and humorous. In the late works of Cui aims to produce a light romances as a collection of poems of the same poet (Rishpena, Pushkin, Nekrasov, AK graph. Tolstoy). For vocal music, dating back nearly 70 choirs and 2 cantatas: 1) "In honor of 300 years of Romanov" (1913) and 2) "Your verse" (words and. Grinevsky), in memory of Lermontov. In instrumental music - for orchestra, . string quartet and for individual instruments - Cui, not so typical, . but in this area they are written: 4 suites (one of them - 4 - is devoted to M-me Mercy d'Argenteau, . great friend of Cui, . for the dissemination of works which in France and Belgium, she has done a lot), . 2 Scherzo, . tarantella (a glossy piano transcription of F,
. Liszt), "Marche solennelle" and Waltz (op. 65). Then there are 3 string quartets, many pieces for piano, violin and cello. Total issued (to 1915) 92 opus'a Cui, this number does not include opera and other works (over 10), among other things, the end of the 1-th stage in "The Stone Guest Dargomyzhsky (written under the dying will last). Talent Cui - more lyrical than dramatic, but often he reaches in his operas, a large force of tragedy, especially his female characters succeed. Power, alien to the enormity of his music. All the crude, tasteless and banal it is hateful. He carefully trim their essays and more inclined to the miniature, than to the broad constructs, the variational form than sonata. He inexhaustible melodist, inventive refinement to the accordion, he is less diverse in rhythm, rarely addresses the contrapuntal combinations and not entirely fluent in modern orchestral means. His music, wearing the features of French elegance and clarity of style, Slavic intimacy, flight of thought and depth of feeling deprived, with few exceptions, specifically Russian character. - Which began in 1864. (St. Petersburg Vedomosti ") and lasted until 1900. (News) musical criticism Cui was of great significance in the history of musical development in Russia. Fighting, progressive nature (especially in the earlier period), an ardent advocacy of Glinka and the "new Russian school", the literary brilliance, wit, established him as a criticism, a huge impact. He promoted the Russian music at home and abroad, working in the French press and published articles from their "Revue et gazette musicale" (1878 - 1880) as a separate book "La musique en Russie" (AP, 1880). By extreme enthusiasm Cui is impairing his classics (Mozart, Mendelssohn) and the negative attitude to R. Wagner. Separately issued to them: "Der Ring des Nibelungen" (1889), "History of Piano Literature" A course. Rubinstein (1889), "Russian Romance" (St. Petersburg, 1896). In 1896 - 1904 years Cui was chairman of the St. Petersburg branch, and in 1904. elected honorary member of the Imperial Russian Musical Society. - Works by Cui military engineering: "A brief tutorial of field fortifications" (7 titles); "Itineraries engineering officer in the theater of war in Europe, Turkey" ( "Engineering Journal"), "Attack and defense of modern fortresses" ( "Military Collection ", . 1881), "Belgium, . Antwerp and Brialmon "(1882)," The experience of the sound determine the value of the garrison of the fortress "(" Engineering Journal ")," The role of long-term fortifications in the defense of states "(" The course Nick,
. Engineering Academy ")," A brief historical sketch of long-term fortification "(1889)," Textbook of fortification for the infantry officers' training schools "(1892)," A few words about the modern fortification fermentation "(1892). - See. V. Stasov "Biographical Sketch" ( "Artist", 1894, "34), C. Kruglikov "William Ratcliff" (ibid.) H. Findeyzen "Bibliographic Index of musical works and critical articles Cui (1894)," C. Cui. Esquisse critique par la C-tesse de Mercy Argenteau "(II, 1888; only by the thoroughness of the essay Cui), P. Weimar Cesar Cui, as romansist (St. Petersburg, 1896); Kontyaev "Piano pieces Cui (St. Petersburg, 1895). Gregory Timofeev.