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Rubinstein Anton Grigorievich

( pianist, composer, conductor)

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Biography Rubinstein Anton Grigorievich
Born November 16, 1829 in the village Vihvatinets, Bessarabia. He studied first at the mother, then at Villuana, a student Filda. According to R., Villuan was his friend and second father. Nine years P. already made public in Moscow, in 1840 - in Paris, where he struck such authorities as Ober, Chopin, Liszt, the latter called him the heir of his game. Concert of his tour in England, the Netherlands, Sweden, Germany was brilliant. In Breslau P. performed his first composition for piano Ondine. In 1841, P. played in Vienna.

From 1844 to 1849 P. lived abroad, where his mentors were the famous contrapuntist Den and composer Meyerbeer. Extremely warm to the young R. Mendelssohn. Returning to Petersburg, he became head of music at the court of Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna. By this time, include a series of his piano pieces and opera "Dmitry Donskoy".

1854 - 1858 years, P. spent abroad, kontsertiruya in Holland, Germany, France, Britain, Italy. In the late 50-ies in the palace of the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna was arranged music classes, which taught Leschetizky and Wieniawski, and there were concerts under AR, with the participation of the choir lovers. In 1859, R., with the assistance of friends and under the patronage of Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna, he founded the Russian Musical Society (cm. XXI, 623).

In 1862 was opened at the Music School "in 1873 became known as the Conservatory (cm. XVI, 40). R., appointed its director, wished to take the examination for a diploma free artist of the school and was considered the first, which received its. Since 1867 R. indulged again in concert and enhanced compositional activity. Especially brilliant success was accompanied by his trip to America in 1872. Up to 1887 P. then lived abroad, in Russia. From 1887 to 1891 was again the director of St. Petersburg Conservatory. To this period belong his public music lectures (including 32 from September 1888 to April 1889). In addition to the brilliant piano works by authors transfer all the nationalities, ranging from the XVI century and ending with the date, P. gave lectures on these wonderful sketch the historical development of music, recorded with the words of the lecturer and published with. Kavos-Dekhtyareva. Another entry published TS.A. Cui, under the title "Literary History of Piano Music" (St. Petersburg, 1889). At the same time period arose on the initiative of RA, public concerts. Mentioned lectures preceded in 1885 - 86 of the historic concert given by P. in St. Petersburg and Moscow, then in Vienna, Berlin, London, Paris, Leipzig, Dresden, Brussels.

In 1889, solemnly celebrated in St. Petersburg, half-century of artistic activities P. After leaving the Conservatory, P. then again, he lived abroad, in Russia. He died in Peterhof, 8 November 1894 and is buried in the Alexander Nevsky Lavra. As the virtuoso pianist, he had no rival. Technique fingers and, in general, the development of hands was for P. only a means, a tool, not an end. Individual understanding of the executable, a wonderful, varied touch, complete naturalness and ease of performance underpinned games this extraordinary pianist.

Sam P. said in his article "Russian music" ( "Century", 1861): "Play - this is the second creation. Possesses this capacity will be able to provide excellent writing mediocre, giving it its own shades of images, even in the works of the great composer he would find effects, to which he or forgot to specify, or which are not thought ". Passion for composing swept R., when he was 11 years old. Despite the lack of assessment of the composer's talents R. public and, in part, to criticism, he insists, and many worked in almost all branches of musical art.

The number of his works has reached 119, not including 12 operas and quite a number of things, and piano ballads, not marked as opus. For piano, written P. 50 works, . including 4 piano concerto with the orchestra and fantasy with the orchestra, followed by 26 works for the concert singing, . solo and choral, . 20 works of chamber music (sonatas with violin, . Quartets, . quintets, etc.), . 14 works for orchestra (6 symphonies, . musical characteristic pattern "Ivan the Terrible", . "Don Quixote", . Faust, . the overture "Antony and Cleopatra", . concert overture, . festive overture, . dramatic symphony, . musical painting "Russia", . written for the opening of the exhibition in Moscow in 1882, etc.),

. Besides, . He wrote concertos for violin and for cello and orchestra, . 4 spiritual opera (oratorio): "Paradise Lost", . "Tower of Babel", . "Moses", . "Christ" and a biblical scene in 5 scenes - "Soulama", . 13 operas: "Dmitry Donskoy, . or Kulikovo - 1849 (3 steps), . Hadji Abrek "(1 action), . "Siberian hunters" (1 action), . "Fomka the Fool" (1 action), . "Demon" (3 actions) - 1875, . "Feramors" (3 steps), . "Merchant Kalashnikov" (3 steps) - 1880, . "Children of the steppes" (4 actions), . "Maccabees" (3 steps) - 1875, . "Nero" (4 actions) - 1877, . "The Parrot" (1 action), . "The robbers" (1 action), . "Goryusha" (4 actions) - 1889, . and the ballet "Grapevine",
. Many operas P. given abroad: "Moses" - in Prague in 1892, . "Nero" - in New York, . Hamburg, . Vienna, . Antwerp, . "Demon" - in Leipzig, . London, . "Children of the steppes" - in Prague, . Dresden, . "Maccabees" - in Berlin, . "Feramors" - in Dresden, . Vienna, . Berlin, . Konigsberg, . Danzig, . "Christ" - in Bremen (1895),

In Western Europe, P. enjoyed the same attention, if not greater, as in Russia. On the good work P. donated many tens of thousands, with their charity concerts. For young composers and pianists he arranged every five years of competitions in different musical centers of Europe, the interest on the capital, intended for that purpose. The first competition was in St. Petersburg, under the chairmanship of R., in 1890, the second - in Berlin in 1895. Educational activities were not a favorite pastime R.; nevertheless from his school came Crosse, Terminskaya, Poznan, Jakimovski, Kashperova, Holliday.

As a conductor, R. was a profound interpreter of the exercise of his sponsors and, in the early years of the Russian Musical Society, promoter of all that is beautiful in music. Major literary works of R.: "Russian Art" ( "Century", 1861), an autobiography, published by MI. Semevsky in 1889 and translated into German ( "Anton Rubinstein's Erinnerungen", Leipzig, 1893) and "Music and its representatives" (1891, translated into many foreign languages).

See. A. G. R., biographical sketch and musical lectures,. Kavos-Dekhtyareva (St. Petersburg, 1895), "Anton G. R." (notes to his biography of Dr M. B. P-ga. St. Petersburg, 1889; ibid., 2 nd ed.) "Anton G. R." (in the memoirs Laroche, 1889, ib.); Emil Naumann "Illustrirte Musikgeschichte" (Berlin and Stuttgart); VS. Baskin, Russian composers. A. G. R. (Moscow, 1886), K. Haller in? 721, 722, 723 "Illustrations of the World" for 1882; Albert Wolff "La Gloriole" ( "Memoires d'un paristen", AP, 1888), "The upcoming 50 th anniversary of artistic activity A. G. R. "(" The Tsar Bell ")," To the 50 anniversary of A. G. R. ", Don Mequez (Odessa, 1889)," A. G. R. "(a biographical sketch NM. Lisowski, Musical Calendar-Almanac ', St. Petersburg, 1890); Riemen "Opera-Handbuch" (Leipzig, 1884); Zabel "Anton Rubinstein. Ein Kunsterleben "(Leipzig, 1891);" Anton Rubinstein ", in the British journal" Review of Reviews "(? 15, December 1894, London);" A. G. R., art VS. Baskin ( "Observer", March, 1895); MA. David's "Memories of A.G. Rubinstein "(St. Petersburg, 1899). N. S.

  • Page A. G. Rubinstein's "Universal Encyclopaedia of megaportals" Cyril and Methodius ". Curriculum Vitae, a portrait.

  • A Detailed Biography. G. Rubinstein, his portrait and one of the pieces in MP3 format at a music education project, "Orpheus".
  • Portrait and a detailed biography
    . G. Rubinstein, abstract opera "Demon" portal "Culture of Russia".

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