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BAKHTIN Mikhail Mikhailovich

( literary critic, linguist, art theorist, philosopher)

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Biography BAKHTIN Mikhail Mikhailovich

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Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin (1895-1975) - the biggest thinkers of the XX century, . whose work in the field of philosophy and philology is now considered classic,
. Born in Orel. He graduated from the Philological Faculty of Petrograd University. In 1920 began his teaching and literary activity. In the book "Problems of Dostoevsky's" (1929) introduces into the everyday life of Philology of the "polifonizme" text, . that is, this type of narration, . when the words sound as if the characters from different independent sources - both playing different instruments in the ensemble forms a polyphony,
. In contrast to "monological" way most writers Dostoevsky's prose "dialogic". Philosophical understanding of culture as a dialogue that is growing in Bakhtin from observations of the prose of Dostoevsky, led to a revolution in sociolinguistics and laid the foundation of contemporary cultural studies.

. Revolution in literary theory has caused the work of Bakhtin's "Creativity Francois Rabelais and the folk culture of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance" (completed in 1940, published in 1965)
. Bakhtin has shown that literature has its roots in "folk festivals" - carnivals and mysteries of antiquity. In general, the work of Bakhtin, . dedicated to the study of Western literary tradition, . remain revolutionary until now and in fact opens up a whole new world - the world of myth and ritual traditions, . which Bakhtin saw carnival and connected with the folk culture,
. Now it becomes clear that it is not so much a "nation" of this culture, as in its traditional rites, which allows you to send stories from the depths of centuries "living example", outside the written fixation.

. For creativity Bakhtin has characterized sociological orientation
. Several of his works, as some researchers in literature, he published "under the guise of" using the pseudonym "In. N. Voloshin "(the book" Philosophy and Sociology of Arts ") and" P. N. Medvedev (book "A formal method in literary criticism). At present, the study of creativity Bakhtin devoted dozens of monographs, journals, special leave, where the legacy of the thinker is considered from different perspectives (for example, the magazine "Dialogue, Carnival, time-space"). There has been some confusion and the positions and views of Bakhtin - a number of Western researchers simplifies his ideas, . reduces the opening of Bakhtin, . in particular his notion of being carnivalization, . to glorify the "physical" and the individualistic principle in man,
. Bakhtin himself in his work "the philosophy of the act" clearly spoke of "the architectonics of personality" as the need to not live in abstractions, but in the real world - and responsible for their actions. Proceedings of Bakhtin gave a powerful impetus to the development of a number of scientific disciplines - and let some of the ideas were outlined to them about, now they are developed and continued in the work of entire scientific schools.

. Bakhtin wrote about the criteria for validity of humanitarian knowledge, the key of which is "finding the inner core of personality, for which the only possible pure altruism"
. Global science has in the person of Bakhtin's not just one of the most profound thinkers of the XX century. - Russian scientist with his ideas of culture as a dialogue, put the problem to which Western philosophy was not ready. Note that the scientist himself lived a life that seems in some sense "fairytale", exclusive: he was able to work productively at all times, without sacrificing their personal and academic merit.

. Since 1957, lecturing on literature Mordovia State University in Saransk
.




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