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Zhukovsky Vasily Andreyevich

( poet)

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Biography Zhukovsky Vasily Andreyevich
Father Zhukovsky - Athanasius I. Bunin, a landowner of Tula province, the owner of. Mishenskogo, mother - Salha, Turk by origin, captured in the assault on Russian Bender in 1770. According to family legend, was brought to Mishenskoe Bunin and donated one of his serfs, a party of Russian-Turkish War. For other (the latest) data, Salha was captured by Major K. Muffle, give it to education Bunin. Got the name of Elizabeth Turchaninova, almost continuously lived in Mishenskom first as a nanny for the younger children Bunins, and then - the housekeeper (the housekeeper). Born in her son's request Bunin adoptable A.G. Zhukovsky (who lived on bread Bunin). This allowed Zhukovsky avoid the fate of illegitimate, . but for the nobility needed to enroll a minor Zhukovsky on a fake military service (in the Astrakhan Hussars) in 1789 he was promoted to ensign, . which gave the right to nobility, . and at the request of Bunin's in the same year "kind Vasily Zhukovsky" included in the aristocratic pedigree book Tula province, continued "military" service lost its meaning, . and in November 1789 Zhukovsky dismissed "on the petition of his service",
Initially education Zhukovsky was in the family Bunins, where he grew up on the Rights of the pupil. When you move a family in the winter time in Tula Zhukovsky first studied in a private hostel H.F. Rode (1790), after the close of which the boy was identified in the General People's College (1792). Expelled from the school director F. G. Pokrovsky, "for failing" Zhukovsky continued training in the home in the Tula. A. Yushkov. Here, the future poet first joined the literary work. For the production, on the home scene in 1795, he composed a tragedy, "Camille, or liberated Rome" and the play "Madame de la Tour" on a novel by Bernardin de Saint-Pierre's "Paul and Virginia".

After the death of Bunin (1791) worries about the rising Zhukovsky assumed grandmother (M. G. Bunin), separated by the natural mother of the poet. However, the gradual realization of the material according to Bunin and instability of their position in their family has to Zhukovsky source of deep inner emotions, reflected in his early diaries. In 1797, he was identified in noble university board (Moscow).

Staying at the hostel (1797-1800) - the most important period in shaping the future of the creative poet. Zhukovsky was the most active participants "Assembly of university students boarding school and produced his anthology" Glory ". The first printed work of Zhukovsky - a lyric poem "May Morning". His pansionskie works - mostly imitative solemn ode "in case" or speech, . intended for the annual pansionskih acts and speeches in the Assembly of pupils ... " ( "The power of, . glory and prosperity of Russia ", . 1799, . Mir, . 1800; speech "On the beginning of society, . dissemination of education and the responsibilities of each person on a society ", . 1799), . or poetry and prose passages on topics raised by mentors moral and ethical and patriotic character [ "Prosperity Russia, . builded great autocrat Paul Her First ", . 1797, "Virtue" ( "Under the starry roof quiet noschi"), . 1798; "Virtue" ( "From the light shines born"), . 1798; 'to hope ", . 1800, . etc.],
. Zhukovsky perceives, however, and new literary and aesthetic trends associated with sentimentality and predromantizmom. One of the best students, graduated from the Zhukovsky board with a silver medal in 1800. In early 1801, together with A. Turgenev, A. F. Voeikov A. F. Merzlyakov, C. E. Rodzianko and other organized Friendly literary society, was short-lived (January-November 1801), but played a prominent role in approving new - romance - the principles in the Russian literature.

In 1804-1806 the poet translated florianovskuyu a novel of Cervantes 'Don Quixote', which helped to familiarize the reader with the national repertoire of world classics. In 1801, Zhukovsky joined "the policeman Secretary" in Moscow Chief hydrochloric office. Indifference Zhukovsky to "post", and an even greater extent - employment literature called "displeasure" boss concluded a careless slave under "arrest" that long alienated him from further attempts to define the service. Immediately after the liberation from the "arrest" Zhukovsky, resigned and went to Mishenskoe with the firm intention to devote himself to literary work.

1802-1807 poet lived in their native lands, only occasionally naezzhaya in Moscow for his literary device Affairs (earnings transfers) and a meeting with the Moscow writers and friends. In those years heavily involved in self -

. These years are characterized by diversity of genre searches: preserving traditional genre forms, . including an ode ( "poetry", . 1805), . Zhukovsky "feels" himself in the genres of military-patriotic anthem ( "The Song of grains over the coffin of the Slavs-winners", . 1806), . fables (translation from Florian, . Lafontaine, . Lessing, . Pfeffelya, . as well as original fables) and even "narrative" of the poem (plans of "Spring"),
. However, in the center of his quest - Elegy.

With elegy "Rural Cemetery", which became, by definition, most of Zhukovsky, the beginning of his independent literary activity, to a young writer finds literary fame and the success of a library. In the elegy allegedly high value of a person, regardless of social status. Reflections on the poet's death led to the assertion of being, his high sense of beauty and

. Multidimensionality artistic vision of the world, . Visible tangibility of poetic images, . richness of sound harmony of verse, . refinement of its melodic design, . variety of rhythms - these features of the poetic talent Zhukovsky, . first appeared in the "rural cemetery", . are developed in the elegy "Evening" (1806),

"Evening" marked the transition of the poet to Romanticism. Gradually Elegy gets in Zhukovsky and more distinct signs of the genre of the national Russian, . and the text is saturated with acute social (and even political) content (this, . example, . elegy "On the death of Field Marshal Count Kamensky", . 1809, . develops the idea of the inevitability of fate, . the inevitability of retribution for their deeds; reason to write it was the murder of M,
. f. Kamensky, cruel to the serfs and profaned among themselves and the Prut march 1807). In the future, Zhukovsky has resorted to turning points in the elegies of creative evolution, meaning it has the important events of inner life [ "Slavonian" 1815; "Color of the covenant", 1819, "The Sea", 1822, "I muse young, had happened", 1822 or 1824].

The most important milestone in the creative biography of Zhukovsky - in 1806, marked by "a lyrical explosion", the creation of about 50 poems of different genres: an ode and Heroides ( "Letter to Eloise to Abelard", translated from A. Popa), the inscriptions to the portrait and a number of original romantic songs (a special genre of love poetry is very popular with the Romantics, who sought to return her a folk song element). It was this year marked one of the first songs Zhukovsky, inspired not so much literary. samples as a living, emerging feelings for his niece (her mother - the sister of the poet's father) - Maria Andreyevna Protassova (in the future - Moyer, 1793-1823) - "Song": "When I was loved, delighted, delight".

Special stage poet's literary activity - participating in the Journal of Europe ", the best Russian journal 1 st decade of XIX century. After becoming editor of the magazine (1808-1809), he contributed to the penetration of the pages of works in the "newest" (ie, romantic) spirit. In 1808-1810 Zhukovsky lived mainly in Moscow, only to summer time leaving their homes Orel and Tula provinces. Unusually productive wrote critical articles, . justified in detail the position of the magazine: a new understanding of the purely literary, . aesthetic problems, . and public, . civil and socio-political purpose of the journal, . need to go "on a par with European education,
. The cycle of his critical sketches of the writers takes a broad policy importance. He closely followed the literary controversy and seeks to update the genre, not only of Russian poetry and prose.

However, prevails in literary studies Zhukovsky interest in translation, mostly prose. By the time the active participation of the poet in the Journal of Europe "and includes his own prose experiments, . largely due to the search for new forms of popular Russian literature: fairy tale "Three Belt" (1808), . "old tradition" Maryina Grove "(1809) and the historical novel" Vadim Novogorodskaya "(1803),

. In 1808-1814 Zhukovsky wrote on 13 ballads, . including loose translation: "Ludmila" (1808), . "Cassandra" (1809), . "Hermit" (1813), . "Adelstan" (1813), . "Ivikovy Cranes (1814), . "Warwick", . Alina and Als ", . "Elvina and Edwin" (all three - 1815) and the original ballad "Achilles", . "Aeolian Harp" (both - 1815),
. In the center of these "little dramas" - a clash with the fate of man, the problem of moral choice, a tragic love story.

Original symbol of the new romantic poetics became ballad "Aeolian Harp" - a beautiful song about the immortality of love and art.

Special place in the ballad cycle takes "Svetlana" - very bright, optimistic creation Zhukovsky. Peculiar epilogue to the cycle of ballads - "Twelve sleeping virgins", intentionally verse transcription of the same name novel by German writer of prose to. G. Spiess.

In 1811, handing the publication "European Messenger Kachenovsky, Zhukovsky returned to Mishenskoe. He constantly visited the house in Protassovs Muratova, . organizes playful "chernsko-Muratava society learned men", . where together with other, . composer-dilettante Pleshcheev, . and sisters Protassovs playing mock-comic play, . publishes comic magazines Muratava lice "and" Muratava morel "- prototypes Arzamas" nonsense ",
. Much time has given edition of the Assembly of Russian poetry ... " (Moscow, 1810-11), five of whom decided to submit all of Russian poetry from A. D. Cantemir and M. V. University to present.

Zhukovsky under the influence of Karamzin and A. Turgenev immersed in the ocean Chronicles ". Creative implementation of those lessons was the poetic transcription "Lay" (1817-1819).

August 10, 1812 was enacted in Zhukovskii Moscow militia lieutenant. On the day of Borodino, he was held in reserve and then being assigned to the staff of M. I. Kutuzov was in the military printing flyers, newsletters, have become an important page of history of Russian journalism in 1812. But his main word of the Patriotic War was the poem "The Singer in the camp of Russian soldiers". A sort of continuation of the ideas and motives "of the heroic cantata" The message will be "winners of the Leader" (original title "the elder Kutuzov", November 1812), "Emperor Alexander" (1814) and the poem "The singer in the Kremlin" (1816).

Recovering from illness (a fever lay in a hospital in Vilna), Zhukovsky, who was awarded the rank of captain and the Order of St.. Anna, in January 1813 came to Muratova. The patriotic poet poetry is very popular, and after a "rural cemetery" Zhukovsky became known literary elite, after "Ludmilla" - to all readers after the singer in the camp ... " - All Russia. At Zhukovsky draws the attention of the court.

However, in the poet's life came one of the most dramatic periods: his attempts to get his hand had been destroyed by Masha firm opposition to her faithful mother, invoking the inadmissibility of the marriage because of consanguinity lovers. Love drama has taken a heavy shock to the Zhukovsky. Songs and Romances 1813-1814, ballads - a poetic chronicle of the dramatic love. Forced marriage Masha, and then her early death in 1823 define the tragedy of the poet's attitude. Last meeting with Masha Zhukovsky dedicated the poem "March 9, 1823".

October and November 1814 held in Zhukovsky Dolbino. Dolbinskaya autumn was fruitful. Playful pets poems, friendship messages, addressed to K. N. Batyushkov IN. L. Pushkin, P. A. Vyazemsky, ballads, patriotic poems are original poetic system. Its unity - the opening of the diverse spheres of being romantic. Friendship, love, suffering, pain and joy of creativity, search for the meaning of life and religion are inseparable in his mind.

The result was the creation of Zhukovsky 1808-1814 edition of "Poems of Vasily Zhukovsky, which includes about 80 works, including those created in autumn 1815 elegy" Slavonian "(h. 2) - one of the masterpieces of romantic lyrics.

The love of painting, which he called "sister" of poetry, poet, carried through his life. His numerous drawings, contacts with the romantic artist, especially with K.D. Friedrich, articles on painting - an organic part of his romantic aesthetics. Formula Zhukovsky: "chief artist - soul, equally characteristic and his painting, and poetry.

In September 1815 Zhukovsky, met with students has Pushkin. March 26, 1820 the poet Pushkin will present on the occasion of the end of the poem "Ruslan and Ludmila" his portrait with the inscription: "pupil-winner from the loser teacher". Friendship Poetry will continue until the death of Pushkin.

In September 1815 St. Petersburg premiere comedy A. A. Shakhovsky "Lesson flirt, or water Lipetsk", where the image of "sensitive poet" Fialkina, in his speeches, a parody of the "trendy kind of ballads," viewers watched the debate from Zhukovsky. This was the reason for the formation of a literary society Arzamas, whose members were Zhukovsky and his like-minded friends (A. Turgenev Batyushkov, Vyazemsky, In. Pushkin) and later it became a young. Pushkin. Members of the Company (who had the nickname, taken from the ballads Zhukovsky) fought antikaramzinskoy Talks fans of the Russian word "led by a. S. Shishkov. Our permanent secretary of the society and his soul - Zhukovsky, nicknamed Svetlana. His protocols (part of verse, written in hexameters) have a bright literary monument to the struggle and the embodiment of Arzamas "culture of humor". Arzamas gave impetus to the consolidation of young literary forces for the emergence of Russian romanticism as a direction, but lasted only two years (until October 1817)

. In January - May 1818 there are 5 issues of the anthology "For the few" ( "Rig Wenige"), . completely filled with translations of Zhukovsky, . including such masterpieces, . as "Forest King", . Meena, . "Fisherman" from Goethe, . "Mountain Road", . "Knight Togenburg", . Voice from the world ", . "Count Gapsburgsky" from Schiller,

Transfers make up a large part of the creative heritage of Zhukovsky. Opening the Russian reader the world of Homer, Goethe, Schiller, above all, he gave them ideas and images into the language of Romanticism, and made them an integral part of Russian Literature. Along with the lyricism of the poet mastered various forms of ancient and European epic poems, in 1820's. he translates gerderovskie songs on Side, "Maid of Orleans" Schiller, "Prisoner of Chillon" Byron, "Perry and Angel T. Moore ballad. Scott Castle Smaylho'me ", excerpts from the" Aeneid "of Virgil and the" Metamorphoses "by Ovid, reproducing the situation in Russian romantic lyric-epic: prison-uznicheskuyu, patriotic sacrifice, boundless love devotion. Zhukovsky created a romantic theory of translation, and storage of his artistic thinking is defined as: "... I have almost everything, or someone else, or about someone else - and all, but my ".

In October 1818 the poet admitted to the Russia Academy. In the years 1819-1824 Zhukovsky created a number of poems, . played the role of his poetic manifesto: "Ineffable", . "On the death of Her Majesty's, . Queen of Wц?rttemberg ", . "Color of the covenant", . "To mimoproletevshemu friend Genius", . "Life" (1819), . "A detailed report on the Moon" (1820), . "Lalla Rooke (1821), . "The Sea" (1822), . "I Muse young, . happened "(1822-1824), . "The Mysterious Visitor", . "Butterfly and Flowers" (1824),
. The Life and Poetry of one "(the poem" I muse young, happened ...") - poetic formula, which has grown out of all of the lyrics of this period. Open Zhukovsky condition of inspiration, meeting with the "Genius of pure beauty" (image, first emerged in the poem "Lalla Rooke") has been fruitful for subsequent Russian poetry (particularly for a lyric. Pushkin). Vivid expression of romantic "philosophy of art" Zhukovsky - poem "Ineffable" (August 1819); poetry designed to capture the beauty of life and its mysteries, . but eh power over the expression "language of the earth" untold "-" the presence of the Creator in creation "and" the holy mysteries ", . that "only the heart knows"? Using the metaphor and, . and allegory, . and myth, . and emblematic, . Zhukovsky creates a special type of symbolic thinking, . that is embodied in the common system of his poems 1819-1824, . become a kind of mythology of his romanticism,

Even in 1815, Zhukovsky was closer to the court. In December 1816 he was appointed by His Majesty's orders (taking into "account of his labors and talents"), a life pension (4000 r.. year). In 1817 he became a teacher of Russian grand duchess, the future Empress Alexandra Feodorovna. From 1826 to 1841 - Tutor heir, the future Emperor Alexander II. Almost 25 years connection with the court could not defer to the impression outlook Zhukovsky, but his soul remained pure. Enlightening idea determined all its activities. The "enlightened monarchy" is constantly faced with official lawlessness and administrative arbitrariness, as Zhukovsky repeatedly wrote to Nicholas I and his chief of compartment III A. X. Benckendorff. His help exiles E. A. Baratynsky and F. N. Glinka, the Decembrists, A. I. Herzen, participation in the destiny of a. V. Koltsov, M. YU. Lermontov, the release from serfdom T. G. Shevchenko, family A. V. Nikitenko - evidence of loyalty to the ideals of personal virtue, and at the same time an expression of his social position.

In 1821 and early 1822 in Zhukovsky suite Grand Duchess made the first trip abroad. He met with the German romantics, visited Switzerland, Chillon Castle, which languished hero of Byron's poem "Prisoner of Chillon", paid a visit to Goethe visited Dresden Gallery - all imprinted in numerous drawings, diaries. Translation of Byron's poems, reflections in letters to the Grand Duchess of personality and work of Tieck and Friedrich's article "Raphael's Madonna" - specific creative next trip. Then the poet finished the translation of Schiller's dramatic poem "The Maid of Orleans", excerpts of which, like the article "Raphael's Madonna", "Journey to the Saxon Switzerland", were published in the anthology "Polar Star" in 1823 and in 1824.

In early 1823, together with Voeikov Zhukovsky lived in the house Menshikov on Nevsky Prospect. In the evening a. A. Voyeikovo (Svetlana) gather the most prominent literary figures. Here, and later on "Saturday" in Shepelevskii house where the poet lived in 1827-1840, discusses the new works are literary controversy, largely determined the development of Russian poetry and social thought. Historical and literary works of Zhukovsky "Review of Russian literature in 1823" (1824) and "The synopsis on the history of Russian literature (1826-1827) reveal the activities of the first Russian romantic as the organizer of literary forces, . advocate and historian of Russian literature,
. By the beginning of March 1824 came in 3 volumes of the third collection of works of the poet - "Poems". It summed up his poetic work more than 20 years.

The head of Russian Romanticism entering a new period of his life, the pathos of which - the development of "kind of narrative poetry, the poetic epic.

Permanent interest in Russian history, a heated exit "History of the State Rossiyskogo" Karamzin, manifested in the work of Zhukovsky over from the era drama "Time of Troubles", a plan which is preserved in the archives of the poet and dated April 14, 1824. At this time, Zhukovsky in contact with social ideas of the Decembrist. S. P. Trubetskoy and Turgenev suggested that he read the charter of the Union of Welfare and counted on his participation in the Decembrist journal. But Zhukovsky not accepted this proposal, though shared anti-serfdom program Decembrist. The ratio of the poet to the Decembrist uprising was complicated, as evidenced by his letter to A. Turgenev of 16 December 1825, where he condemned the rebels. As they get acquainted with the events and persons involved in them, Zhukovsky, not taking the uprising as a form of protest, seeking his acquittal in the history of Russia.

In May 1826, seriously ill, with gloomy thoughts of death, evidence of which was a testament, the poet went abroad. Within one and a half years in Germany and France, he shtudiruet works of historians of the French Revolution, meets with European legislation, in the saloon with F. R. Chateaubriand, A. Lamartine and Guizot, visiting Goethe in Weimar.

Returning to the court, Zhukovsky much attention to educational activities. But simultaneously activates its social activities, making him, according to Nicholas I, the reputation of "opposition leader". Public acts of Zhukovsky: letter to Nicholas I of the amnesty of the Decembrists, the letter of the prohibition of the journal and. V. Kireyevski "European of the" intercession for Vyazemsky, an application for the wives of the Decembrists - were based on his notion of "enlightened monarchy" of human freedom and the rule of law.

Time of the new creative impulse of the poet began in 1831. In December came just two editions of "ballads and stories". The first consisted of all the ballad works 1809-1831, the second, One-languid, - only new works created in 1828-1831. In the new ballads are becoming increasingly evident epic nature of the genre - eventfulness, narrative, interest in the philosophical problems. 12 new ballads form a thematic unity. In the center of them all - the theme of fate and circumstances of the fight man. "Triumph of winners" and "Excerpts from the Spanish songs on Side" - the beginning and end of the ballad cycle - were heroic ring, inside of which evolved topic.

Poetic epics Zhukovsky opens up a world of terrible stress spiritual contradictions of personality, vacillating between humility, religious renunciation and protest, in an unequal struggle with destiny, and yet - the world of passionate dream of harmony.

Summer - Fall 1831 Zhukovsky held in Tsarskoe Selo, where also lived with his young wife Pushkin. In a kind of competition with Pushkin, Zhukovsky wrote here "The Tale of Tsar Berendei ..."," Tale of a sleeping princess, "" War of mice and frogs ". In all three tales important moment of creative re-create the folklore material, orientation to the author's literary fairy tale, including folklore sources, foreign-language samples.

In June 1832 Zhukovsky went abroad. After treatment at the spa Ems, settled with other German artist G. F. Reitern, in the Swiss village of Vernet on the shore of Lake Geneva, making numerous trips, especially in the mountains. Zhukovsky keeps a diary, making sketches from nature and many translates: "The court in the basement" (an excerpt from the poem in. Scott's "Marmion"), ballads Roland squire "," Swimming of Charlemagne, "" Knight Rolland "," Old Knight "- all of Uhland, from the same - a dramatic story of" the custom of Normandy, written by a white 5-iambic pentameter.

In April-May 1833 visited friends in Italy. In Rome, Zhukovsky common with K. P. Bryullov, A. A. Ivanov, talking about the art of Stendhal, who visited him together with Zinaida Volkonskaya, inspects Studios head group nazareytsev "And. F. Overbeck, German painter of historical P. Cornelius, a Danish sculptor B. Thorvaldsen On. A. Kiprensky. In September 1833 the poet returned to Russia. Participated in the creation of the libretto M. I. Glinka's "Ivan Susanin" (defining the historical story and writing words for the epilogue), as well as the national anthem "God Save the Tsar" (1 st verse-translation start of the English national anthem, 2 nd and 3 rd - A. Pushkin, others - Zhukovsky; music. A. F. Lviv). In 1834, prevented the dismissal of Pushkin, settled its conflict with the king and Benckendorff.

In the first issue of Pushkin's "Contemporary" (1836), which became an active member of Zhukovsky, is his ballad "Night parade" (translation of the poem of the same name and. K. Tsedlitsa), immediately became popular thanks to Glinka romance. In the same year Zhukovsky completes started back in 1831 Ondine. Opens "Undine dedication in verse (" There were days rapturous visions ") turned to the Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna (daughter of Nicholas I).

In November 1836 averted Zhukovsky, Pushkin's duel with Dantes. He tries to help the Pushkin, but on Jan. 27, 1837 among the first to know about the duel and seriously wounded Pushkin. Zhukovsky makes concise notes are important for understanding the last days of the poet's life. His letter. L. Pushkin called "The last minute of Pushkin and the letter to Benckendorff the death of the poet became the most important public documents. They recreate the drama of life of Pushkin and directly call Benkendorf and yard persecutors poet. After the death of Pushkin Zhukovsky much help to his family and contributed to the publication of his works. In March 1839 the poet has created a free translation of "dramatic poem" the German poet F. GALMIER "Camц?es". The tragic fate of the earth Portuguese poet, author of "Lusiad, justified his high calling: the suffering soul of a poet matures, suffering - holy grace". The essence of romanticism Zhukovsky - the apotheosis of poetry and approval of its sacred purpose.

Trip to England (1839), a visit to the village cemetery, near Windsor, where he wrote his elegy T. Gray, provoked new interest in Zhukovsky thereto. His translation of "rural cemetery" 1839 differs from the translation of 1802 not only prosody and word for word: a new attitude. Instead of "solitary singer" comes to open world hero. The situation is "grounded" and "domesticated".

In August 1840, during another trip to Germany, was engaged to Elizabeth Reitern poet (1821-1856), daughter of his friend the artist, which he dedicated the poem "Oh, I pray thee, the Creator" (free translation from H. Lena). In 1841, Zhukovsky, handed in his resignation and went to Germany, where on May 21, he married.

1840-e gg .- a new period in the creative biography of the poet. Despite all attempts to return to Russia, Zhukovsky, the circumstances of his life are formed so that this intention was not realized. His wife's illness, the birth of her daughter Alexandra (1842-1899) and son Paul (1845-1912), own illness detained him in Germany until the end of life. However, communication with the motherland will never be interrupted by meetings with fellow countrymen, friends. Poet publishes his works in Russian journals, mainly in the "Contemporary" Pletnev and Moskvityanin ".

His creative activity has intensified in different directions. He teaches a special method for their own children, creates for them the alphabet, devotes his children's poem "Little Bird", "Kitty and the goat," "Skylark," "boy-with-finger". Closely following the developments of European life, responds to these journalistic articles. Expression of public philosophical position Zhukovsky was the book "Thoughts and observations", completed in 1850 and rejected Russian censorship.

In the center of the aesthetic interests of Zhukovsky remains the problem of "high" power of art, words of power and responsibility of the artist (article "On the melancholy in life and poetry, 1846," On the poet and his contemporary significance. Letter to H. V. Gogol, 1848, "Two scenes from" Faust "1849).

In 1843, translated in verse novel "Mateo Falcone" (from A. Chamisso on a story by P. Merimee) and "Captain Bopp" (source undetermined). In 1844, for Moskvityanin "creates story-translation of Chamisso and F. Rц?ckert. In 1845 he wrote "Tale of Ivan Tsarevich and the Gray Wolf and the story" Tulip Tree ". Parallel Zhukovsky developed the theory of "narrative poetry, talked about the convergence of poetry and prose. He is looking for his form of national epic. This is evident intent of the book "Tales for Youth"

. Important step towards the implementation of the concept of the epic began shifting the samples eastern epic: "Nal and Damayanti" (1837-1841) - an excerpt from the Indian epic "Mahabharata", . and "Rustam and Zohrab" (1846-1847) - an episode from the epic poem Ferdowsi Sahnama in the translation of German poet F,
. Rц?ckert received in Zhukovsky original incarnation.

The main difficulty of these years was the translation of "The Odyssey" by Homer (1842-1849). Zhukovsky create a romantic "Odyssey": The idea of confrontation human destiny, his endless striving forward to the "sweet home", our home, the beloved and faithful wife, his son received a special force of emotional sounds. In a sense, translate Zhukovsky be called "Odyssey of a new time", "Russian Odyssey. In 1845-1850 Zhukovsky "translated from the Slavonic text of the entire New Testament".

April 12, 1852 Zhukovsky died (he was buried in Baden-Baden, but in August his remains were transported to St. Petersburg and buried near the grave of Karamzin).


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