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Mikhail Lermontov

( poet, prose)

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Biography Mikhail Lermontov
photo Mikhail Lermontov
Life: 15/10/1814 - 27/07/1841
Born in Moscow in the family of Army Captain Yuri Petrovich Lermontov (1787-1831) and Maria Mikhailovna Lermontovo (1795-1817), nee Arsenieva, the only daughter and heiress Penza landowner E. A. Arsenieva (1773-1845). A marriage contracted against the will of Arsenieva, was unequal and unhappy, the boy grew up in an atmosphere of family disagreements. After the early death of mother Lermontov's grandmother herself took up his education, completely removing the father.
The poet's childhood passed in Arseniev "Tarkhany" Penza province. The boy received a metropolitan home education, from childhood was fluent in French and German. In the summer of 1825, Lermontov's grandmother drove the waters in the Caucasus; children's impressions of nature and life of the Caucasian mountain peoples remained in his early works ( "Caucasus", 1830, "Blue Caucasus mountains, welcome you !..", 1832). In 1827 the family moved to Moscow, and in 1828 transferred Lermontov boarder in Grade 4 of the Moscow university boarding school, which receives a liberal education. Already in Tarkhany determined keen interest in Lermontov's literature and poetic creativity. Already in the hostel is determined by the preferred orientation of Lermontov's A. S. Pushkin's Byronic poem. Byronic poem becomes the basis of early work of Lermontov. In 1828-1829,. He wrote the poem "Le Corsaire", "criminal", "Oleg", "Two Brothers" (published posthumously), "The last son of liberty", "Izmail-Bey", "Demon".
. In the center of Byronic poem - the hero, an outcast and a rebel at war with society and its flouting social and moral norms; over it gravitates "sin", a crime, usually clothed in mystery and outwardly appears as suffering.
. In March 1830 the Moscow board by order of the Senate, he was transformed into a gymnasium
. In 1830, Lermontov was dismissed "at his own request and spent the summer at the estate near Moscow Stolypins Serednikovo; in the same year, after exams enrolled on moral-political department of Moscow University. By this time, is the first strong youthful enthusiasm Lermontov E. A. Sushkov (1812-1868), whom he met at his friend A. M. Verescagino. With Sushkova linked lyrical "cycle" in 1830 [ "To Sushkov," "Beggar," "Stanzas" ( "Look how calm my eyes ...")," Night, "" Imitation of Byron "(" Do not forget your feet ..."), "I do not love you: passion ..."].
. Apparently, some time later Lermontov is experiencing even more severe, although short-term sense to H
. F. Ivanova (1813-1875), daughter of playwright F. F. Ivanov.
In those years (1830-1832) is the formation of the personality of the poet, and shifting love affair is largely an attempt to personal affirmation. There is a genre of "passage" - a lyrical meditation that focuses on a point continuously ongoing self-reflection and introspection. Poems 1830-1831, and contain social motives and themes. Political poetry in the literal sense of Lermontov rare; socio-political perspective, as a rule, stands in his system of philosophical and psychological reflection. This is particularly noticeable in Lermontov's lyric early 1830. Moscow University lived philosophical and political interests, it operated in student clubs and societies (and. V. Stankevich, A. I. Herzen in. G. Belinsky). The connection with Lermontov's no information, but it may share the characteristic of the spirit of political opposition and even took part in a student's action (expulsion from the audience of Professor M. YA. Malov). These ideas were found in his expression even in the "Complaint Turk" (1829) and a series of poems dedicated to the European revolutions of 1830-1831 [30 July. (Paris) 1830 "," July 10. (1830)], the events of the French Revolution ( "From Andrew Chenier", 1830-1831) and the era of Pugachev ( "Prediction", 1830). So be prepared problems first experience of Lermontov's prose - the novel "Vadim" (1832-1834) with a wide panorama of the peasant revolt 1774-1775 gg.
The addressee of lyric poetry of Lermontov in this period was in. A. Lopuchin (1815-1851), in marriage Bakhmetev, sister of a fellow University of Lermontov. Feeling for her Lermontov was the strongest and most prolonged. Lopuchin was the recipient or as a prototype in early poems [ "K Lermontov" ( "At the feet of others not to forget ...", . 1831), . "It is not proud beauty ...", . 1832, . and others], . and in later works: "Valerik", . dedication to the VI edition of "Demon", the image of its place in the poem "No, . not you so ardently I love you ", . the "Princess of Lithuania" (Vera). In 1830-1831 early lyrical works of the poet reaches the top, then starts declining.,
. After 1832 Lermontov appeals to ballad ( "Reed", 1832 "Desire" - "Open to me the prison," 1832 "Mermaid", 1832) and prose.
. In Lermontov's poems at this time would be defined as two thematic groups: one tends to medieval Russian history ( "The last son of liberty", . 1831; 'Litvinko ", . 1832), . other - to the exotic Caucasian subjects ( "Ismail Bay, . 1832 "Aul Bastuidzhya",
. 1833-1834, "Haji-Abrek, 1833).
In 1832, Lermontov left Moscow University and moved to St. Petersburg, hoping to continue his education at St. Petersburg University, but he refused to credit courses Listen in Moscow. To start learning again, . Lermontov shall elect a Board of native military career and in November 1832 exams in the School of Guards sub-ensigns and cavalry cadets and conducts two years in the military training facility, . where troop duty, . duty, . parades leaves little time for creative activities (school life in roughly naturalistic form was reflected in the so-called officers' poems - "Peterhof holiday", . "Ulansha", . "And hospitals" - all 1834),
. She perks up in 1835, . Lermontov was released when the cornet in the Life Guards Hussar Regiment (September 1834), in the same year he published the poem "Haji Abrek" - the first performance of Lermontov in the press (according to legend, . manuscript was assigned to the journal without the consent of the author),
. Lermontov pays to the censors the first edition of the drama "Masquerade" is working on a poem "Sasha", "Boyar Orsha", begins the novel "The Princess Ligovski". Known about familiarity with Lermontov A. N. Muravyov AND. I. Kozlov and close to the emerging Slavophil circle with. A. Rajewski and A. A. Krajewski. In the novel "The Princess of Lithuania" (1836; not finished, published in 1882) Lermontov first drawn to the social chronicles, anticipating the "physiology" 1840. At the same time working on Lermontov's Masquerade (1835-1836), the first work, which he considered worthy of publication, three filed in a dramatic double-censorship and rewriting; drama, however, was prohibited.
In the period 1836-1837 he. Lermontov creates "Boyarin Orsha" (1835-1836), the first original and mature poem. Orsha - Lermontov's first attempt to create a historical character - the feudal era of Grozny, living the laws of honor Boyar. This theme was continued in "The Song about Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich, young guardsmen and swashbuckling Merchant Kalashnikov" (1838). Some kind of analogue of "Songs ..." in Lermontov's lyric was "Borodino", the response to 25-th anniversary of the battle of Borodino (1837) - "micro-epic" of the People's War of 1812.
. In 1835-1836 Lermontov is not included in the closest circle of Pushkin, Pushkin, he is also unfamiliar
. The more fundamental character gets his poem "Death of the Poet" (1837, published 1858), written immediately after receiving news of the death of Pushkin. February 18, 1837 Lermontov was arrested, began a political affair of the "impermissible verse". Under arrest Lermontov wrote several poems: "Neighbor" ( "Who would neither wast thou sad, my neighbor"), "Prisoner", which ushered in the brilliant "cycle" of his "prison poetry": "Neighbor," "Captive Knight" (both - 1840) and others.
. In February 1837 was given the highest order for the translation of Lermontov ensign in the Nizhny Novgorod Dragoon Regiment in the Caucasus, and in March he went through Moscow
. Catch cold in the road, . was left for treatment (in Stavropol, . Pyatigorsk, . Kislovodsk; en route to the regiment he had "traveled all along the Line, . from Kizlyar to Taman, . moved mountains, . Shusha was, . in Cuba, . in Shemakha, . in Kakheti, . dressed in Circassian, . with a gun over his shoulder, . slept in the open field, . asleep under the cry of jackals ... ", . in November was in Tiflis,
. In 1837 he recorded folk tale about Ashik KERIB ( "Ashik Kerib"), seeking to convey color of the East of speech and the psychology of "Turkish" storyteller, poet, popular character revealed in the "gifts of the Terek River," "Cossack lullaby song," "Runaways". In Pyatigorsk and Stavropol, he meets with H. M. Satine, like that of the Moscow board, Belinsky, Dr. H. V. Mayer (the prototype of Dr. Werner in "Princess Mary"), met with the exiled Decembrists (P. I. Krivtsov, IN. M. Golitsyn in. N. Likharev, M. A. Nazimova) and is close friends with the A. I. Odoyevsky ( "Memory And. I. Odoevskogo, 1830).
During his exile, and especially later revealed artistic talent Lermontov, was fond of painting since childhood. He owns watercolors, oil painting, paintings - landscapes, genre scenes, portraits and caricatures, the best of them relate to the theme of the Caucasian.
Caucasian link was reduced by A grandmother worries. X. Benkendorf. In October 1837 was ordered Lermontov in Grodno Hussars (in Novgorod Province), and then in the Life Guards Hussar Regiment, stationed in Tsarskoe Selo. In the 2 nd floor. January 1838 Lermontov returned to St. Petersburg. 1838-1841 - the years of his literary fame. He immediately falls in Pushkin's literary circle, met with VA. Zhukovsky, P. A. Viazemsky, P. A. Pletnev, IN. A. Sollogub, adopted in the family Karamzins. Karamzin Lermontov on the eve of the last links read "Clouds". In 1840, in St. Petersburg separate editions come only lifetime collections of "Poems" and "Hero of Our Time.
Heritage Lermontov by 1840, Mr.. included for about 400 poems, 30 poems, not counting the unfinished dramas and prose works. The vast majority of Lermontov's works published posthumously.
. In 1838-1840 the poet is a "circle of sixteen - the aristocratic society of young people, part of the military environment, the combined laws of corporate behavior, and political opposition parties.
. During this period in his poetry and prose seemed to come alive Pushkin started
. However, the basis of prose (and poetry), Lermontov, Pushkin's opposite in many ways, it is not typical of Pushkin's laconic prose and poetics of "harmonic accuracy" in the poetry. Close relationship with Pushkin Lermontov's circle is not formed: and Zhukovsky, and Vyazemsky, and Pletnev, not all take in his work. It is also "selectively" take it and emerging Moscow Slavophilic mugs. For its part, Lermontov was watching the activities of future slavophiles (A. S. Khomyakov SW. F. Samarin), maintained personal ties with them, published in "Moskvityanin" (1841) ballad "dispute", but remained cold to the social and philosophical foundations of their teaching ( "Homeland", 1841).
. The most solid relationship established Lermontov with the magazine "Notes of the Fatherland."
. It was there that appears most in vivo and postmortem publication of Lermontov's poems, as well as "Bela", "пєп°я?п°п?п?я?я?", "Taman".
. In February 1840 at a ball at the Countess of Laval Lermontov clashed with the son of a French envoy E
. Barant; immediate cause was a secular rivalry - a preference cast Lermontov kn. M. A. Scherbatova, which was interested in raids and in 1839-1840 attracted Lermontov. The quarrel, however, grew into the personal scope and significance of the act has the protection of national dignity. On February 18 the duel, ending in reconciliation. Lermontov was nevertheless committed to a military court; detention visited by his friends and literary acquaintances. Under arrest was another explanation Lermontov with Barant, worsening the course of events. In April 1840 was ordered to transfer the poet in Tenghinka infantry regiment in the army in the Caucasus. In June, he arrived in Stavropol, the headquarters of the commander of the Caucasian line of General P. X. Grabbe, and in July is already involved in skirmishes with the mountaineers, and in a bloody battle at p. Valerik.
In early February 1841, received a two-month vacation, Lermontov arrives in St. Petersburg. It represents the reward for his bravery, but Nicholas I reject the submission. The poet spends 3 months in the capital, surrounded by attention, he is full of creative plans, hoping to obtain his resignation and surrender to the literary activity. He is interested in the spiritual life of the East, with whom he came into contact in the Caucasus, in several of his works he refers to the issues of "Eastern world view" ( "Tamara", "Dispute").
. April 14, 1841, did not get a respite, returned to the Caucasus, Lermontov
. In May, he arrives in Pyatigorsk and gets permission to stay for treatment of mineral waters. Here he wrote many poems: "The Dream", "cliff", "They loved each other ..."," Tamara "," Rendezvous "," leaflet "," I go out alone on the road ...", "Marine princess, "" The Prophet ".
. In Pyatigorsk Lermontov society finds old acquaintances, including his fellow cadets School Martynov
. At one of the evenings in Pyatigorsk Lermontov family Verzilin jokes offended Martynova. The quarrel led to a call; overlooking the disagreement, Lermontov took him, not intending to shoot a comrade, and was killed on the spot. Buried in the family vault in Tarkhany.

Russian pisateli.1800-1917. T. 3. Moscow, Russia Bolshaya Encyclopedia. 1992. S.329

Biographies Portfolio
  • Roman M. YU. Lermontov's "Hero of Our Time" in the online library Alexei Komarov. Portrait of the writer.

  • Poem "Mtsyri, a compilation of poems M. YU. Lermontov M. YU. Lermontov in the "public electronic library" Eugene Peskina.

  • Museum M. YU. Lermontov in Moscow. History, the subject of lectures, information on the work of the museum. Hosted by the server "All Moscow".

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