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Nekrasov Nikolai Alekseevich

( poet)

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Biography Nekrasov Nikolai Alekseevich
photo Nekrasov Nikolai Alekseevich
Place of the nobility, the once wealthy family. Born on 22 November 1821. in Vinnytsia district, Podolia province, where at that time quartered the regiment, which served as a father Nekrasov. Man and a passionate zeal, Aleksei Nekrasov was very fond of women. He fell in love with Alexandra Zakrevskaya, Varshavyanka, daughter of a wealthy posessionera Kherson province. Parents were not willing to give well-bred daughter of a poor, little educated army officer, the marriage took place without their consent. He was not happy. The poet always talked about his mother as a martyr, the victim of brutal and depraved environment. In a number of poems, especially in the "Last Songs" in the poem "Mother" and "Knight Time", Nekrasov painted the bright image to that brighten his noble personality unattractive environment of his childhood. Charm of memories of his mother affected in the works of Nekrasov's extraordinary participation of its women to share. None of the Russian poets did not do much for the apotheosis of wives and mothers, as it is harsh, pseudo-"stale" representative "muses revenge and sorrow".

Nekrasov's childhood spent in a family estate Nekrasov village Greshnevo, Yaroslavl province and district, where his father retired, moved. Huge family (Nekrasov had 13 brothers and sisters), launched the case and a number of processes by name forced him to take the place of police,. During the trips he often took with him Nikolai Alekseevich. The arrival of police, the village has always announced something unhappy: a dead body, knocking arrears and t. n. - And many, therefore, lay in the sensible soul boy's grim picture of people's grief.

In 1832, Mr.. Nekrasov enrolled in the Yaroslavl school, where reached grade 5. He was a not so good, with the gymnasium superiors did not get (partly because of the satirical poems), and since my father always dreamed of a military career for his son, then in 1838, Mr.. 16-year-old Nekrasov went to St. Petersburg for the determination of noble regiment. It was almost established, . but a meeting with the gymnasium friend, . student Glushitskim, . and familiarity with other students filed in Nekrasov, a thirst to learn, . that he ignored his father's threat to leave him without any material aid, and began to prepare for the entrance examination,
. He does not stand a volunteer and entered the Faculty of.

From 1839 to 1841, Mr.. Nekrasov spent at the university, but almost all the time took him to seek a livelihood. Nekrasov suffered terrible hardship, not everyone had the opportunity to dine at 15 kopecks. "Exactly three years," he told me later, "I felt constantly, every day hungry. Not once went as far as what I went to a restaurant on the sea, which allowed a newspaper to read, although nothing had asked me. You take, happened, to form a newspaper, and he pododvinesh a plate of bread and eat ". Not always, even in Nekrasov's apartment. From long fasting, he fell ill and a lot of debt to the soldier, who has rented room. When more polubolnoy, he went to someone, then return the soldiers, despite the November night, do not let him back. Above him he had compassion held a beggar and took him into some slum on the outskirts of the city. This doss Nekrasov found a shelter and earnings by writing to someone for 15 to. petition

. Things soon settled it: he gave lessons, . wrote little articles in the "Literary addition to Russian Invalid" and "Literary Gazette", . composed for cheap popular publishers alphabet and tales in verse, . placed on the vaudeville stage Alexandrina (under the name Perepelskogo),
. He began to appear savings, and he decided to come out with a collection of his poems, which came out in 1840, with the initials H. N., entitled "Dreams and sounds". Field praised debutant, . according to some accounts to it reacted favorably Zhukovsky, . But Belinsky in "Notes of the Fatherland" praised the book lightly, . and it is so affected Nekrasov, . what, . like Gogol, . once buy and destroy "Hans Kyuhelgartena", . he bought and destroyed the "Dreams and sounds", . become so great bibliographical rarity (in the collected works of Nekrasov they are not included),
. We see here Nekrasov in a completely alien to him - as a balladeer with a different "terrible" titles ( "The evil spirit," "Angel of Death," "The Raven" and t. n.). "Dreams and sounds" are not specific in that they are as it were, the lower stage in the work of Nekrasov, but that they no stage in the development of talent Nekrasov is not present. Nekrasov author book "Dreams and sounds" and Nekrasov late - they are two poles, which is not possible to merge in a creative manner.

In the early 40-ies Nekrasov is a contributor to Notes of the Fatherland, first on the bibliographic unit. Belinsky closely met him, loved him and appreciated the virtues of his big mind. He realized, however, that in the prose of the Nekrasov, nothing but mediocre journalistic staff, will not work, but enthusiastically endorsed his poem: "The Road". In 1843 - 46 years Nekrasov has published several collections: "article in a poem without pictures," The Physiology of Petersburg, April 1, "" St. Petersburg Collection ". Of particular success was the last in which there were "poor people" Dostoevsky. Publishing Nekrasov went so well that at the end of 1846, Mr.. He, along with Panayev, acquired from Pletnev's "Contemporary". Many employees Fatherland Notes threw Krajewski and joined Nekrasov, Belinsky also moved to the "Contemporary" and handed Nekrasov part of the material that is collected for the collection started by his "Leviathan". This was ensured success of the new enterprise. With the death of Belinsky and the onset of the reaction caused by the events of 1848, "Contemporary", remaining the best and the spread from contemporary journals, made concessions to the spirit of the time. Starts printing in the "Contemporary" infinitely long, filled with incredible adventure novels: "The three countries of the world" and "Dead Lake", written in collaboration with Nekrasov Stanitskim (alias Golovacheva-Panaeva; cm. XIII, 947).

Around the mid 50-ies Nekrasov seriously, it seemed fatally, ill with a throat disease, but stay in Italy, rejected a catastrophe. Recovery Nekrasov coincides with the beginning of a new era of Russian life. In the work of Nekrasov also comes a happy period, nominated him to the front ranks of literature. He got now in terms of people of high moral order: Chernyshevsky and Dob become major figures of Contemporary. Thanks to its remarkable sensitivity becomes a poet Nekrasov, citizen par excellence. With less than surrendering to the rapid forward movement of vice their former friends, including Turgenev, he gradually dispersed, and about 1860. it came to the full with the gap. Deploy the best of soul Nekrasov, only occasionally to his biographer saddened episodes like the one in which Nekrasov himself alludes in his poem: "I die soon". In 1866, Mr.. "Contemporary" was closed, but Nekrasov became friends with an old enemy of his Krajewski and rented from him in 1868. Fatherland Notes delivered them to the same height, which held the "Contemporary".

Early 1875. Nekrasov became seriously ill, and soon his life turned into a slow agony. In vain was discharged from Vienna, the famous surgeon Billroth; painful operation to nothing has. News of the deadly disease of the poet brought his popularity to higher voltage. From all over Russia poured letters, telegrams, greetings, addresses. They brought joy to the high patient in his terrible agony. Written during this time "The Last Song" on the sincerity of feeling, focused almost exclusively on the memories of his childhood, his mother and committed errors that belong to the best creations of his muse. In the soul of the dying poet clearly visible in the consciousness of its importance in the history of the Russian word. In the beautiful lullaby song "Bayu-Bayu" Death said to him: "Fear not bitter oblivion: had I hold in my hand a crown of love, the crown of forgiveness, the gift of gentle country of your ... Lose the light the darkness stubborn, you hear their song over the Volga, Oka, over, over Kama ...

Nekrasov, died Dec. 27, 1877, Mr.. Despite the frost, a crowd of several thousand people, mostly young people, accompanied the body of the poet to his place of eternal reassurance in the Novodevichy Monastery. Funeral Nekrasov, sitting by themselves, without any organization, represents the first nationwide impact of recent honors writer. Already the most Nekrasov struck up a funeral, or rather, continued fruitless debate about the relationship between him and two of the greatest representatives of Russian Poetry - Pushkin and Lermontov. Dostoevsky, who said a few words at the open grave Nekrasov set (with certain reservations), these names are close, but few young voices interrupted him with cries of: "Nekrasov above Pushkin and Lermontov". The dispute went to the press: some supporting the view of young enthusiasts, . others pointed out, . that Pushkin and Lermontov were the spokesmen of the entire Russian society, . and Nekrasov - one of only a "circle"; others rejected with indignation the very thought of the parallels between creativity, . dovedshim Russian verse to the summit of artistic excellence, . and "clumsy" Nekrasov's poem, . though devoid of any artistic value,
. All these terms are one-sided.

Value Nekrasov - the result of a number of conditions that have created his charm, and those violent attacks he suffered in his lifetime and after death. Of course, in terms of elegance Nekrasov poem can not be placed next to Pushkin and Lermontov. None of the great poets of our not so many bad right from all points of view of poetry, many poems he commanded not to include in his collected works. Nekrasov is not sustained, even in their masterpieces: and they suddenly reznet ear prosaic, dull verse. But, not always reaching the external manifestations of artistry, Nekrasov any one of the greatest artists of the Russian word is not inferior in strength. From whatever side we approach the Nekrasov, he never leaves me cold, always concerned. And if you understand the "Arts" as the amount of impressions that lead to the final effect, the Nekrasov - artist deep, and he expressed the feelings of one of the most exciting moments of Russian history of life. The main source of power, reached Nekrasov - just that the opponents stand on uzkoesteticheskuyu point of view, especially put him in reproach: in his "unilateralism". Only this one-sidedness and harmonize perfectly with the melody "nelaskovoy and sad, muse, the voice which Nekrasov listened to the first moments of his conscious creation. All men of the forties to a greater or lesser extent, were grieved people's grief, but they draw the brush gently, and when the spirit of the age old system of life declared a merciless war, the spokesman of the new mood was one of Nekrasov. Persistently, relentlessly beats it in one and the same point, not wanting to know no mitigating circumstances. Musa, revenge and sorrow "does not enter into the transaction, and she remembers all too well the old lie. Let them be filled with horror the hearts of audiences, it is - a beneficent sense: from it came all the victories were humiliated and insulted. Nekrasov not give rest to his readers, does not spare his nerves, and without fear of accusations of exaggerating, reaches quite active impressions. This tells pessimism Nekrasov very peculiar nature.

Despite the fact that the majority of his works full of the bleakest pictures of national grief, the main impression that Nekrasov leaves his readers, no doubt bracing. The poet does not succumb to the sad reality that does not bow before her neck meekly. He boldly enters into battle with the forces of darkness and confident of victory. Reading Nekrasov rouses the anger, which in itself is a grain of healing. Sounds of vengeance and sorrow of the people's grief is not confined, however, the entire contents of the poetry of Nekrasov. If the dispute can go about the poetic sense of "civilian" Nekrasov's poem, the differences are smoothed out considerably, and sometimes even disappear, when it comes to Nekrasov as ethics and lyric

. The first time a great poem of Nekrasov, . "Sasha", . offers magnificent lyrical assumption - a song of joy on his return, . - One of the best images zaedennyh reflection of people 40-ies, . people, . that "scour the globe, . cause a giant looking, . benefit of the rich legacy of fathers freed from the small works ", . that "love is more concerned with his head - not blood", . in which "the book says the latest, . that the soul and lie on top ",
. Written before Turgenev, Rudin, Nekrasovskaya "Sasha" (1855), in the person of the hero of the poem Agarina, first noted the many essential features Rudinsky type. In the face of the heroine, Sasha, Nekrasov, Turgenev, too, had brought to light tending nature, the basic outlines of his psychology reminding Helen of "eve".

The poem "Accidents" (1856) is dispersed and variegated, and therefore not sufficiently clear in the first part, but in the second, where the person had been exiled for the unusual crime Mole Nekrasov partly brought Dostoevsky, is strong and expressive verse. "Peddlers" (1861), little serious in content but written in an original style, in the national spirit. In 1863, Mr.. appeared the most seasoned of all the works of Nekrasov - "Jack Frost". This - the apotheosis of Russian peasant, in which the author sees a disappearing type of "majestic Slav". The poem depicts only the bright side of the peasant nature, but nevertheless, thanks to strict consistency majestic style, there is nothing sentimental. Especially good in the second part - Daria in the woods. Bypass patrol governor-Frost, gradual freezing of the young women, sweep in front of her vivid pictures of past happiness - all this perfectly, even in terms of "aesthetic" criticism, written in beautiful poetry and gives all the images, all the pictures.

As a general warehouse for "Frost Red Nose" joins previously written a lovely idyll: "Jabberwocky" (1861). Bitter singer of sorrow and suffering of the completely transformed, becoming surprisingly gentle, soft, gentle, as soon as it came to women and children.

The latest national epos Nekrasov - written by a very huge size of the original poem "Who Lives Well in Russia" (1873 - 76), already one of its size (about 5000 verses) could not be entirely the author. It is not little chats, not a little anti-artistic exaggeration, and exaggeration, but there are numerous places of astonishing power and accuracy of expression. Best in the poem - the individual, occasionally inserted songs and ballads. They particularly rich in the best, . latter part of the poem - "It's happening!", . ending with the famous words: "You are poor, . you abundant, . thou art mighty, . you impotent, . Mother Russia "and the cheerful exclamation:" Slavery was saved in the heart of the free, . Gold, . Gold, . heart of the popular ",
.

It is not quite sustained, and another poem by Nekrasov - "Russian Women" (1871 - 72), but the end of it - Volkonskaya rendezvous with her husband in the mine - belongs to the touching scene of Russian literature. Lyricism Nekrasov appeared on the fertile soil burning and strong passions, who owned them, and a sincere consciousness of his moral imperfection. To a certain extent, living soul saved in Nekrasov, it was his "fault", which he often said, referring to the portraits of friends, "reproachfully from the walls" to him watching. His moral failures kept him alive and immediate source of impulsive love and thirst for atonement. Power of Appeals Nekrasov psychologically explained by the fact that he did in moments of sincere repentance. None of our writers repentance is not the only Russian poet who has developed a purely Russian trait. Who made him so hard to talk about their moral degradation, why it was necessary to expose themselves to the unfavorable side? But, obviously, it was stronger than his. The poet felt that repentance is the best pearls from the depths of his soul, and devoted himself entirely spiritual impulses.

Repentance must Nekrasov his best work - "Knight Time", which one would be enough to create a first-class poetic reputation. And the famous "Vlas" also came out of a deep sense of the cleansing power of repentance. This also adjoins a great poem: "When the darkness of error, I cried a fallen soul, which spoke with enthusiasm, even these few are located on Nekrasov critics, such as diamonds and Apollon Grigoriev. Force gives a sense of enduring interest in the lyrical poems of Nekrasov - and these poems, along with poems, long he provides primary place in Russian literature. Obsolete now his accusatory satire, but because of lyrical poems and poems of Nekrasov can make that highly artistic merits, the value of which does not die until the Russian language alive. Characteristically, Russian modernism, declared war on all the traditions of all 60-ies, Nekrasov puts very high.



Biographies Portfolio Publications
  • A Speech. F. Kony "Nikolay Nekrasov". The basis of the essay laid the third section of excerpts from the memoirs "A. F. Horses, published in the Journal of Europe ", б? 5, 1908

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