(1818 - 1883)
Born on October 28 (November 9, NS) in Orel in a noble family. His father, Sergei, a retired hussar officer, came from an old noble family, mother, Varvara Petrovna, - from a wealthy landowning family Lutovinov. Turgenev
's childhood passed in a family estate Spasky Lutovinov. He grew up in care, tutors and teachers, Swiss and Germans, homegrown uncles and serfs nurses'.
With the relocation of the family to Moscow in 1827, the future writer was given to the board, spent about two and a half years. Further education continued under the leadership of private teachers. From childhood he knew French, German, English.
In autumn 1833, before reaching the age of fifteen, he entered the Moscow University, and the following year transferred to the St. Petersburg University, graduating in 1936 and the verbal separation Philosophical Faculty.
In May 1838 went to Berlin to listen to lectures on classical philology and philosophy. He met and became friends with Stankevich, N. and M. Bakunin, a meeting that had far greater significance than the professors lecture in Berlin. Held abroad for more than two academic years, combining studies with long journeys: toured Germany, traveled to Holland and France, a few months he lived in Italy.
Returning to his homeland in 1841, settled in Moscow, where he was preparing for master's examinations and attended literary circles and salons: acquainted with H. Gogol, P. Aksakov, Khomiakov. In one of his trips to St. Petersburg - with Herzen
. In 1842, he successfully delivers the master's exam, . hoping to get a professorship at Moscow University, . but, . because the philosophy was brought under suspicion of Nicholas's government, . Department of Philosophy, were abolished in Russian universities, . become a professor failed,
In 1843 he entered the service of officials, "particularly the Office of the Minister of the Interior, where he served for two years. In the same year was an acquaintance with Belinsky and his entourage. Social and literary views of Turgenev
determined in this period is mainly influenced by Belinsky. Turgenev
published his poems, poems, dramas, stories. Criticism was directed to work their estimates and friendly advice.
In 1847, for a long time is going abroad: a love for the famous French singer Pauline Viardot, whom he met in 1843 during her tour in St. Petersburg, took him from Russia. For three years he lived in Germany, then in Paris and the estate of the family Viardot. Before leaving he gave in the "Contemporary" sketch "Polecat and Kalinych" which was a big hit. The following sketches of people's life published in the same magazine for five years. In 1852, leave a book called "Notes of a Hunter".
In 1850 returned to Russia, as the author and critic working in the "Contemporary" that became the center of the Russian literary life.
Impressed by the death of H. Gogol's obituary published in 1852, banned by the censor. During this month, subject to arrest, then sent to his estate under the supervision of the police without the right to travel outside the province of Orel.
In 1853 it was allowed to come to St. Petersburg, but the right to travel abroad was returned only in 1856.
Along with "hunting" stories of Turgenev
wrote several plays: "freeloader" (1848), "The Bachelor" (1849), "Month in the Country" (1850), "Provincial" (1850),. During the arrest and exile wrote the story "Mumu" (1852) and "The Inn" (1852) on the "peasant" theme. But it takes more lives of the Russian intelligentsia, which are devoted to the story "Diary of a Superfluous Man" (1850), "Jacob Pasynkov" (1855), "Correspondence" (1856). Work on stories eased the transition to the novel.
In the summer of 1855 Spassky was written "Rudin", in 1859 - "The Noble Nest", in 1860 - "Yesterday" in 1862 - "Fathers and Sons.
The situation in Russia changed quickly: the government announced its intention to liberate the peasants from serfdom, the preparation of the reform, giving rise to numerous plans for the upcoming reorganization. Turgenev
is actively involved in this process, . becomes an unofficial member of Herzen, . sending accusatory material in the magazine "The Bell", . cooperates with the "Contemporary", . gathered around a main forces of good literature and journalism,
. Writers of different directions at first speak with one voice, but soon came the sharp differences. There was a gap in Turgenev
's magazine "Contemporary", . cause of which was the article Dobrolubova "When will this day?", . devoted to the novels of Turgenev
"eve", . in which the critic predicted the imminent appearance of Russian Insarova, . approximation of the Revolution,
did not accept this interpretation of the novel and asked Nekrasov not print this story. Nekrasov took the side Dobrolubova and Chernyshevsky, and Turgenev
left the Contemporary. By 1862 - 63 is his polemic with Herzen on further ways of development of Russia, which led to the divergence between. Hopes on the reform "from above", Turgenev
, Herzen believed unfounded faith in the revolutionary and socialist aspirations of the peasantry.
In 1863 the writer moved with his family Viardot in Baden-Baden. Then he began to cooperate with the liberal-bourgeois Journal Europe ", which were published all of his subsequent major works, including the latest novel," Virgin Soil "(1876). Following family Viardot, moved to Paris. In the days of the Commune lived in London, after its defeat he returned to France, where he remained until his death, spending the winter in Paris, and the summer months in the country, in Bougival, and each spring, making a brief trip to Russia. Public lift 1870 in Russia, involving attempts to find the Populists revolutionary way out of the crisis, the writer met with interest, made friends with the leaders of the movement, has provided material assistance in the publication "Next". The newly awakened his longtime interest in folk theme returns to the "Sportsman's Sketches", complementing them with new essays, wrote the story "Lunin and Baburin" (1874), "Clock" (1875) and others.
It starts with a public revival among young students, among broad segments of society. Popularity Turgenev
once shaken his break with the "Contemporary" is now once again re-established and rapidly. In February 1879, when he came to Russia, he feted at literary soirees and dinners, strongly invited to stay at home. Turgenev
even inclined to stop voluntary exile, but this intention was not carried. In spring 1882 the first signs of serious illness and deprived of the writer's movements (cancer of the spine).
August 22 (September 3, NS) 1883 Turgenev
died in Bougival. According to the testament of the writer, his body was transported to Russia and was buried in St. Petersburg.
- A number of works and. S. Turgenev - novel, "Rudin," the story "Asya" and a series of articles on Shakespeare's works - can be read at the Library of Maxim Moshkova. "
- Novels and stories and
. S. Turgenev in "public electronic library" Eugene Peskina. Portrait of the writer.