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TYUTCHEV Fyodor Ivanovich

( poet, diplomat)

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Biography TYUTCHEV Fyodor Ivanovich
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Tiutchev Fyodor Ivanovich (1803 - 1873), poet. Born on November 23 (December 5, NS) in the manor Ovstug Orel province in the old-nobility srednepomestnoy family. Father - Ivan Tyutchev (1768-1846) came from an old noble family.

Fedor Ivanovich received education at home under the direction of Semyon Raich, and later became a teacher of Mikhail Lermontov. Studied Latin and ancient Roman poetry, in the thirteen translated Odes of Horace. He continued his liberal arts education at the verbal department at Moscow State University, where his teachers were Mikhail and Alex Merzlyakov Kachenovsky. Before enrollment in the number of students in 1818 was elected member of the Society of Russia's literature.

. Receiving a certificate of graduation in 1821, Tiutchev entered the service in the State of Ministry of Foreign Affairs and sent to Munich as a freelance attache Russia's diplomatic mission
. Since then, his relationship with Russian literary life for a long time suspended. In Munich, he met with Schelling and Heine and married Eleanor Peterson, nee Countess Botmer, from which has three daughters. The eldest of them, Anna, later married Ivan Aksakov.

. In 1829 - 30 in the journal Raich's "Galatea" was published poems Tyutchev, testifying to the maturity of his poetic talent ( "Summer Evening", "Vision," "Insomnia," "Dreams"), but not brought fame to the author

This recognition of poetry Tyutcheva first received in 1836, when Pushkin's "Contemporary" came his 16 poems.

In 1837 he was appointed first secretary of the Russian mission in Turin. Steamer 'Nicholas I', where the family Tyutcheva leaving St. Petersburg in Turin, is in distress in the Baltic Sea. When saving Eleanor and the children helps floated on the same ship Ivan Turgenev. This disaster severely crippled health Eleanor Tiutcheva.

In 1838, she dies. Tiutchev so saddened that, spending the night at the tomb of his late wife, turned gray in a few hours.

But already in 1839 Tjutchev to marry Dernberg Ernestine (nee Pfeffel), the connection with which, apparently, was still being married to Eleanor.
The first wife, extremely vexed betrayal of a spouse, even tried to commit suicide.

Ernestine preserved memories of one ball in February 1833, where her first husband felt unwell. Not wanting to disturb his wife to have fun, Mr. Dernberg decided to leave home alone. Turning to the young Russian, who spoke with the baroness, he said: 'I instruct you to my wife'. This Russian was Tyutchev. A few days later Baron Dernberg died from typhoid fever, an epidemic which swept while Munich.

Prevarication Tiutchev (unauthorized departure to Switzerland for a wedding with E. Dernberg) puts an end to his diplomatic service. Resigned and settled in Munich, where he spent another five years without any official position. Persistently seeking ways to return to service.

In 1844 moved with his family in Russia, and six months later again enlisted to serve in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

. In 1843 - 50 in favor with the political articles, "Russia and Germany", . "Russia and the Revolution", . "The Papacy and the Roman question", . making a conclusion about the inevitability of conflict between Russia and the West and the final triumph of "Russia of the future", . which appears to him as "Slavic" empire,

In 1848 - 49, captured the events of political life, he wrote such beautiful poems as "reluctantly and timidly ..."," When in the circle of deadly cares ...", "Russian women", etc., but does not want to print them

. The beginning of poetic fame Tyutchev and stimulus to his active creative work was an article Nekrasov, Russian minor poets "in the journal" Contemporary ", . in which the talent of the poet, . unnoticed criticism, . and publication of 24 poems Tyutchev,
. The poet it is now recognized.

In 1854 came the first collection of poems, in the same year was printed 'lovingly tragical' cycle of poems called 'denisevskim cycle', as the majority belonging to his poems dedicated E. A. Denisiev. Although typical for them thinking of love as a tragedy, . a fatal force, . leading to the devastation and loss, . found in early works Tyutchev, . but "illegal" in the eyes of the world, middle-aged poet's relationship with his daughter the same age, . which lasted for fourteen years, . indeed been very dramatic and severe impact on the work of the poet,
. However, it would be wrong to tie all the poems in this series to the biography of Fedor Ivanovich. Sam Tiutchev in the formation of 'cycle' did not take part, so is often not clear to whom they are addressed or other poems - to the E. A. Denisiev or wife Ernestine.

In 1858 he was appointed chairman of the Committee of foreign censorship, not just speaking of persecuted defender of publications.

Since 1864 Tiutchev has one loss after another: Denisiev dying of tuberculosis, a year - two of their children, his mother.

In the work Tyutcheva 1860 - 70 is dominated by political poems and small - "in case" ( "When the aging force ...", 1866," Slavs ", 1867, etc.). The last years of his life, too, marred by heavy losses: dying, his eldest son, brother, daughter Maria.

December 4, 1872 the poet lost his freedom of movement with his left hand and felt a sudden loss of vision, he was assailed by painful headaches.

On the morning of January 1, 1873, despite the warning of others, the poet went for a walk, intending to visit friends. On the street he had a stroke that had paralyzed the entire left half of the body.

July 15, 1873 in Tsarskoe Selo, died Tyutchev.

July 18 the coffin of the poet moved from Tsarskoe Selo in St. Petersburg and was buried in the cemetery of the Novodevichy Convent.

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  • And what had become of Ernestine?
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