Zemtsov Michael G.( architect, representative of the early Baroque, one of the architects of St. Petersburg)
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Biography Zemtsov Michael G.
Life: 1688 - 1743
Born in Moscow in 1688 (exact date of birth unknown). The first reliable information about Michael Zemtsova relate to 1709, when he studied at the St. Petersburg office of the provincial Italian language. In 1710, by decree of Peter I, he was sent to serve in the Office of the City Police Affairs. The Office then directed the erection of a stone fortress 'St Petersburg' and the construction around the city. Was led by Domenico Trezzini, with the architect Michael Zemtsov had the opportunity to learn.
His outstanding abilities were seen Michael Zemtsova Domenico Trezzini, which is often even left his pupil to work with other trainees. It is recommended Trezzini Zemtsova for a trip to Moscow, where in 1718, work began in the Moscow Kremlin and Kitai-Town. The construction manager has been appointed Michael Zemtsov.
In 1719 he died GI. Mattarnovi, and in 1720 - ZH.B. Leblond. Their work continued H. Michetti. The Italian was in a difficult position, because he lived at that time in Russia only a year, poor knowledge of Russian language. At associates he was summoned from Moscow, Mikhail Zemtsov, because he could not only provide support but also to be an interpreter. After positive feedback on Zemtsova Italian, Russian architect named a 'architecture Gezalim'. Then Zemtsov able to conduct an independent.
1721 Year Michael Zemtsov held in Reval, which completed its first independent project - Revel'skii palace of Catherine I. Then Peter I sent Zemtsova in Stockholm. The similarity of climatic conditions in Sweden and St. Petersburg offered hope that the recipe Swedes plaster can be applied in the capital of Russia. The study of this recipe and was engaged Mikhail Zemtsov.
After the departure of H. Michetti from Russia all his works convey Zemtsova. Since then, Michael G. was busy in St. Petersburg. He led all the work that went on in St. Petersburg and the suburban royal residences. Zemtsov equipped with modern amenities the park at Peterhof, worked on the Grand Cascade. Despite all the merits, the architect for a long time remained 'architecture Gezalim', that is an apprentice. Then it was thought that a man humble origin must dispense and modest incomes.
Despite the constant employment, Zemtsov found time to train new experts. Michael Zemtsova fame as a teacher was great, his studio became the largest in St. Petersburg. In 1724, the architect had finally officially received the title of architect.
After the death of Peter I the main work at the imperial court sent F.B. Rastrelli. Work Zemtsova for Anna Ioannovna limited Peterhof. In St. Petersburg from 1731 to 1734 on his project to build a church Simeon and Anna. About three years Zemtsov led the construction of the Alexander Nevsky Monastery.
In 1734, he died Domenico Trezzini. Zemtsova were transferred all of his work. In 1735 he became the architect of the St. Petersburg office of the chief of police.
In 1737 one of the leaders of the Commission of St. - Petersburg construction. Together with AND. K. Korobov has finished work on the Russian architectural Code (1741), initiated by P. M. Eropkin. Since 1741 directed the construction at Politseymeysterskoy Office.
In 1741 the architect began work on his major project - a stone Trinity Cathedral at Trinity Square. The project was implemented only in the 1750's, after the death of the architect. Simultaneously with work on the project's Cathedral Zemtsov worked and other matters, such as houses the Persian Embassy.
In late 1742 or early 1743 M. Zemtsov developed a broad program of reconstruction of the Tsarskoe Selo palace ensemble, whose implementation was to make a modest Tsarskoe Selo with a small palace of Catherine I in the grand ensemble. However, when it came to building, Elizabeth changed the original decision and approved the new draft, authored by the architect, a pupil Zemtsova, Andrew Kvasov.
On his return to St. Petersburg, Mikhail Grigorievich was asked to build Anichkov Palace.
Responsibilities for the architect was so much, which led to the emergence of an anecdotal story that after his death, allegedly had to appoint 13 people to deal with those cases that he acted alone. And for all this enormous work, which he obediently served almost 20 years, M. Zemtsov continued to receive all the same 550 rubles, appointed him in 1724. If the first years salary, perhaps enough (at that time the architect was a bachelor), the 1730's, when he had the family, but still had on his Komm "build a stone house, income was clearly not enough. Three times he appealed to the Empress Anna Ioannovna, and then to the Empress Elizabeth, asking him to reward his "rank". In August 1742, he expounded on several sheets of all their achievements in 32 years of service. Architect wrote, . that "correcting the architecture to be the case initially for the Office of the buildings in sanktpiterburgskoy Fortification, . Churches and sacred buildings and homes of your Imperial Majesty Sanktpiterburgskogo, . Strelinskogo and Revel, . at the same retracting gardens lyustgausov, . grottoes, . Fountains, . cascade and protchego ",
. He further stated: "Beyond the add my writings I corrected the main office of the chief of police, . also established the Commission on sanktpiterburgskom structure of all divorces and extent of, . establishment of streets and squares, . watching and the structure of houses and narrow-minded witness and assess their writing and the main project drawings and a letter from the building of public and private papers, . about all that the scenery of the city concerned and was conducted by teams nationwide to benefit, . in which difficult cases treated than all my peers ",
. So wrote the architect of his hard working life. Mentions he and his students, many of which are "in favor of the state produced in Gezalim, and Ivan Blank is an architect". And for all that he asks Welcome to "the rank and patents for food: the surplus salary". Only six months later came an order to award him the rank of Lieutenant Colonel "for a long term Evo service and zeal before protchimi architects".
Draft Anichkova palace with a large elegant regular garden Zemtsov completed in summer 1741. By 15 August, was presented a list of materials needed for production of construction. So how to do their own performance, he could not out - for a long stay in Moscow, the supervision of the smashing of piles and ditches for the laying of foundations exercised "architecture Gezalim and his top aides with. Chevakinsky AND. Slyadnev and T. Dmitriev. Works were moving too fast. In 1742 and 1743 have not yet started laying the foundation and walls.
Later, when after the death Zemtsova led the ensemble was found Dmitriev, the construction of the palace still were built according to the drawings Zemtsova. Rendered in a building different from the nature of his project only to have done against prozhekt architect Zemtsova ... above the chamber, in order that the order was ready to use OkienkovцҐ bindings, transported from Kurland ". Moreover, instead of his proposed "finimentov" - a complex of baroque compositions - graduated from the palace, in the future, F. AB. Rastrelli created on the lateral projection in the facade of the dome. The prototype for them was the completion of the Tsarskoe Selo palace church, created with. I. Chevakinsky. That is why a copy of the drawing Anichkova facade of the palace, filled with D. Dmitriev, which reproduced the idea of M. Zemtsova this conclusion is not. It appears on Figure M. Makhaeva that occurred from life in 1750. Displayed on the picture gallery in front of the palace was also built on the draft Zemtsova.
For a long time the exact date of death Zemtsova was not known, and all who have written about him, limited to indicating that it happened in autumn 1743. In one of the protocols of the Office of the buildings managed to find the following entry: "... architecture Gezalim Slyadnev Ivan and Grigory Dmitriev filed preterm announced the team of the Office of Lieutenant-Colonel de thereof, and architect Michael Zemtsov held on September 28 the day the will bozheyu Updated October ". So set the date of death M. Zemtsova - September 28, 1743.
1731-1734 Church of Simeon and Anna in St. Petersburg, was consecrated January 27, 1734. For the construction of the spire was invited X. van Bolos (preserved, partly rebuilt)
Spotting the palace of Peter I (completion of construction and finish; by project P. van Zviten; lost)
. Draft Hermitage Pavilion at Catherine Park (Tsarskoe Selo)
. Cavaliers and artisan yards in Peterhof (1732)
. Cascade 'Golden Mountain' (the Lower Park of Peterhof), together with Michetti
. Restructuring the ruins of the cascade (Lower Park of Peterhof)
. Draft Anichkova Palace
. 1743-1754 Transfiguration Cathedral in St. Petersburg
. The temple was built from 1743 to 1754. Michael Zemtsov not live up to the end of construction, after his death, chaired by architect Pietro Trezzini, which has somewhat changed the project. Temple has not been preserved - was completely rebuilt after a fire in 1825 as an architect in. P. Stasov.