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TON Konstantin

( Architect)

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Biography TON Konstantin
photo TON Konstantin
November 6, 1794 - February 16, 1881

Konstantin Andreevich Ton lived most and generally a happy and creative life. A pupil of the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts, he is in the middle of XIX century, he led her, taking the post of rector "part of architecture". At the highest level of architectural hierarchy to. A. Tonu helped raise well-deserved thank the creator and leader of the officially recognized "Russian-Byzantine style - directions, . managed to the fullest extend of architecture during the rule of eclectic ideological content of the government program, . essence of which identified a well-known triad - "Orthodoxy, . Autocracy, . nation ",
. Contemporaries differently assessed value of creative activity to. A. Ton. Some people - they were the majority - saw this as the architect reformer and innovator, persistently searched for ways to further development of building art, which contributed to "dethronement" of aging classicist. Others, however, represents the democratic wing of the Russian society, saw in the works to. A. Tona only materializes the reactionary policies of the regime of Nicholas I and refused to recognize them any significant artistic merit. Negative attitude to the creative heritage of the architect and later became a characteristic of the Soviet period, this was one of the reasons that many religious buildings, constructed on the draft by. A. Ton, were ruthlessly demolished. In recent years, Russia's scientists have done much to restore the objective, historically accurate portrait of the creative masters. It was published several articles and books devoted to. A. Tonu. In 1994. in the Moscow Kremlin hosted a representative conference to mark the 100 anniversary of the birth of the architect. In the same year, began rebuilding the church of Christ the Savior in Moscow. The largest and most significant buildings Konstantin Ton were carried out in Moscow. In the Cathedral of Christ the Savior is more complex and the Grand Kremlin Palace with the Armory. But K. A. Ton primarily, of course, the St. Petersburg artist. Petersburg he belongs by birth; in this city he grew up and studied the profession of architect, in St. Petersburg and worked as a teacher and as an artist. Konstantin Thon was born on October 26, 1794, Mr.. family Russianized German jeweler Andrew Ton. In Constantine he had two sons - Alexander and Andrew. All three brothers became architects. Like Constantine, Alexander has achieved in his career professorial positions, but he worked not only as an architect, but also as a graphic artist, a specialist in the field of lithography. Andrew, having finished teaching, he moved to Kharkov, was a professor at the University. Constantine identified in the Academy of Fine Arts at the age of nine years, as permitted under the statute of academic beginning of XIX century. From 1809, Mr.. He began studying architecture under the guidance of a. N. Voronikhin. According to the rules of the course, students develop an architectural office on the instructions of teachers training projects, the best of which highlights a different medals. Such awards received and Konstantin Ton: a small silver medal in 1813. his project was marked invalid at home, and a year later rewards in the form of a large silver medal was awarded the tone for the drafting of the monastery. In 1815, Mr.. next medal - a small gold - Tone received a draft of the Senate building. Concurrently, he was awarded the title of the artist 1-th degree, which gave the right to travel abroad for improvements in the arts "as an academic pensioner. However, to make such a trip immediately upon receipt of the title of the artist Tonu failed: the Academy at the time there were no funds for the payment of the pension. The young architect was forced to enlist in the Committee of structures and hydraulic works, which probably served as a draftsman. And in 1818, Mr.. recent graduate of the Academy presented its court enforcement of a project fair, was highly appreciated by specialists. Due to this success Konstantin Thon, and finally managed to go to the pensioner's trip, it happened in May 1819, when the president of the Academy of Fine Arts has been a. N. Olenin - an outstanding figure of Russian culture, an energetic administrator, historian and connoisseur of art. Abroad to. A. Ton spent almost ten years. He lived, like other academic retirees, mostly in Italy, engaged in the study of works of art where antiquity and the Renaissance. Studies of ancient ruins, taken Ton, allowed him to develop projects for the restoration of the sanctuary of Fortune in Preneste and the complex of imperial palaces on the Palatine in Rome. Creation of such "restoration" was considered obligatory section program of academic study of retirees in Italy: it was supposed to foster learning the laws of classical compositions, . that young architects had to then be used in the design practice,
. In December 1828, Mr.. K. A. The tone is returned to St. Petersburg. President of the Academy, with prejudice following the progress of pensioners was about Constantine Tonya most favorable to him the impression. That is why immediately after returning to Russia received from the tone of Venison is very responsible task: he had to develop a draft design of state rooms of the Academy of Fine Arts, . remained not fully trimmed since the end of the construction of academic buildings at 1780h gg,
. A recent retiree from the success he decided the proposed task: at the very beginning 1829. His projects were awarded "the highest approval". Project K. A. Tona was executed in 1837. In the design of the state rooms of the Academy was attended by pupils and other academic school. The dome of the central hall was adorned with paintings in. K. Shebuyev Triumph on Mount Olympus on the occasion of the establishment of the Academy of Arts ". Overlapping the library was decorated with images of Apollo and the Muses, filled with P. V. Basin. The hall council installed a statue of Catherine II of work. I. Galberga. Simultaneously with the front rooms on the project to. A. Ton, developed in 1829, was revised and the academic church, placed in the center of the northern shell of the building. In contrast to the antique galleries church hall covers monumental cylindrical body, but it is divided into coffers with decorative moldings. The perception solemn grandeur of the interior of the church contribute to a warrant form - pilasters, placed along the walls in strict rhythm. The church was consecrated in the name of St.. Catherine the Great in 1837. Projects undertaken to. A. Ton on assignment A. N. Venison, played in the life of the architect role. It is for them, but also for the pensioner's work, brought from Italy, in 1830, Mr. Ton. was awarded the title of Academician. Starting next year, he began teaching in the architectural class, and two years later won the Academy office "Professor 2nd Class". Teaching to. A. Ton worked effectively until the end of life, nurtured during this time many young masters of architecture. In 1830h he. creative activities to. A. Tona was associated with the Romantic movement, which developed in the Russian art. By this time the first, yet not backed by solid scientific data attempts to restore ancient buildings. They were taken in the so-called "artistic-archaeological" survey, conducted by including the initiative and under the guidance of a. N. Venison. In 1826, Mr.. the historical and architectural research has been involved as an architect and H. E. Efimov. For their work with interest watched the Emperor Nicholas I, much emphasis on the arts. That the emperor has made a final decision on the "renewal" of the Tithe church in Kiev, the excavation of the ancient foundations of which involved H. E. Efimov. "Renewal", to be exact - the construction of the new Tithe church began in August 1828, but the project is not H. E. Efimova, and in. P. Stasova. And in St. Petersburg in 1827, Mr.. started designing the church of St.. Catherine at Obvodniy channel. This work was destined to occupy in the history of religious architecture of Russia "borderline" situation: on the one hand, it seems to be summed up the development of classicism, and with another - symbolized the birth of the "Russian-Byzantine style. The emperor did not consider it suitable for implementation in nature none of the proposed projects. In his memoirs, published in 1876, F. G. Sun was so telling about this: "When the projected construction of the temple of Catherine the Great Martyr in Kolomna (St. Petersburg), the emperor was presented to eight projects. But they are not worthy of the highest approval. The emperor said: "What is all want to build in the Roman style, here in Moscow, there are many beautiful buildings entirely in Russian style". The tone came on the subject to A. N. Olenin, who pointed at my pictures and Efimova, advised to do something like that. Tone drafted the Russian church of XVII century. Emperor liked this project. The tone became known, and since then have begun in Russia, built temples and buildings in the Russian style ". Construction of the church of St.. Catherine, started in the spring of 1831, ended in 1837. In 1870h he. composition of the church bell tower supplemented tent, with advice to. A. Tona it was designed by architect in. A. Dorogulin. To this day the temple has not survived: in 1929,. it was demolished, and the remainder of a few years built a cinema "Moskva". Also in 1830, which was so important landmark in the biography to. A. Thon, held another very important architectural competition. His aim was to develop a project the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow, conceived as a monument to Russia's victory in the war against Napoleonic France. In the competition, along with K. A. Tong and others took part in St. Petersburg and Moscow architects. Approval of Nicholas I of the Church of St.. Catherine induced tone, and in this case to seek fortune in the way of processing and interpretation of ancient forms of the national architecture. This path is really to succeed: April 10, 1832. Nicholas I inscribed on the final draft to. A. Ton approving resolution. But, . designing a Moscow church, . Architect sought to use other, . than before, . compositional principles: now he was inspired not sophisticated in their decorative churches XVII century., . and sought to emphasize the similarity of the image created by the mighty Kremlin cathedrals,
. Contributing and monumental proportions of the bulk of the building, and the relative stinginess of external decoration. But inside the temple was supposed to hit the magnificence of decorative finishes, a variety of finishing materials, colorful paintings. Detailing general plan to. A. Ton, . development of working drawings and templates, . thumbnail interior decoration, . Finally, , . Technicians, . painters, . masons and craftsmen of other specialties,
. This entire army of builders and artists skillfully managed to. A. Tone, and in the absence of monitoring the construction works were his assistants, among whom were a. I. Rezanov, L. V. Dahl, AND. S. Kaminsky AND. I. Wigeon etc.. Construction of the temple after performing the necessary preliminary work began in 1839, Mr.. Rough building was constructed in the mid-1850h years. And then proceeded to furnish and decorate the interiors. And only in 1881. project plan was implemented fully. And in the very beginning of that year - January 25 - K. A. Ton died. That's why it is absolutely true that the establishment of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior was indeed a matter of life of the architect. Yet this case was not the only. Its scope and intensity of construction with the construction of the Cathedral of Christ is quite comparable to another Moscow building the same years - the construction of a grand complex of the Grand Kremlin Palace and the Armory.



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