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RADISHCHEV Alexander

( Famous writer, one of the main representatives of our educational philosophy, ``.)

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Biography RADISHCHEV Alexander
Radishchev (Alexander) - a famous writer, one of the main representatives of our "educational philosophy". His grandfather, . Athanasius Prokofievich Radishchev, . One of the amusing Peter the Great, . rose to the rank of brigadier, and gave to his son Nicholas at the time a good upbringing: Nicholas Afanasievich knew several foreign languages, . was familiar with the history and theology, . like agriculture and read a lot,
. He was much loved by the peasants, so that during the Pugachev rebellion, when he was with the older kids hid in the woods (he lived in the Kuznetsk district of Saratov region), and the younger children gave at the hands of the peasants, no one gave him. His eldest son, Alexander, beloved mother, was born August 20, 1749, Mr.. Russian grammar he learned chasoslovu and hymnals. When he was 6 years old, it was attached to a French teacher, but the choice was unfortunate: the teacher, as they later learned, was a fugitive soldier. Then my father decided to send the boy to Moscow. Here Radishchev was placed with a relative of his mother, M.F. Argamakova, intelligent man and an enlightened. Radishchev was entrusted to the care of a very good French-governor, a former adviser to Rouen parliament, who fled from the persecution of the Government of Louis XV. Obviously, from his Radishchev learned for the first time some of the Philosophy of Education. Argamakov, its relations with Moscow University (the other Argamakov, A. M., was the first director of the University), delivered Radishchev opportunity to use learned professors. From 1762 to 1766, Mr.. Radishchev studied at the Corps of Pages (in St. Petersburg.), And, visiting the palace could watch the luxury and manners of the Catherine Court. When Catherine ordered to send in Leipzig, for study, twelve young noblemen, including six pages, the most distinguished conduct and success in teaching, between the latter and was Radishchev. About Radishcheva stay abroad, in addition to his own testimony Radishcheva (in his "Life of F.V. Ushakov "), provides information a number of official documents about the life of Russian students in Leipzig. These documents provide evidence that Radishchev in the Life Ushakova, nothing exaggerated, but rather even softened a lot, the same is confirmed by the extant private letter from his relatives to one of his comrades Radishcheva. When sending students abroad were given instructions regarding their studies, written personally by Catherine II. These instructions read: "1) teach all the Latin, French, German, and, if possible, the Slavic languages, which have a conversation and reading books ekzertsirovat. 2) All study moral philosophy, history, especially of those natural law, and publicly, and few and Roman history and law. Other sciences to study leave for any of will ". On the content of the students were assigned considerable resources - to 800 p. (from 1769. - 1000-p.) Annually for each. But the oversight of the nobles as a teacher ( "Chamberlain") Major Bocoum withheld subsidies are a significant part in their favor, so that students are strongly needed. They were placed in a damp, dirty apartment. Radishchev rep office courier Yakovleva, "was the whole tenure (Yakovlev) in Leipzig is sick, and on leaving had not yet recovered, and the disease to the table could not walk, and allotted to him for food on a flat. It is in discussing his illness, for leave bad food, direct undergoing famine ". Bocoum was a rude, uneducated, unjust and cruel, it was permitted to apply themselves to the Russian students to corporal punishment, sometimes very strong. Besides, he was a very boastful and incontinent, putting it consistently in a very awkward and comical situation. Since the departure from St. Petersburg in Bocoum clashes with students, their displeasure against him grew steadily, and finally expressed in a very big stories. Bocoum tried to expose students rebels appealed to the promotion of Leipzig authorities demanded the soldiers and put all the Russian students under strict guard. Only judicious intervention of our Ambassador, Prince Beloselsky, has not produced stories that end in the way it sent Bocoum. Ambassador freed prisoners, stood up for them, and although Bocoum stayed with the students, but has to treat them better, and the sharp clashes were not repeated. Fracц?s was also elected student chaplain: to them was sent monk Paul, a man happy, but lowbrow which aroused ridicule students. Of comrades Radishcheva especially remarkable Fedor Ushakov, to the enormous influence of what he had on Radishcheva, who wrote his "Life" and has published some of the works of Ushakov. Gifted with an ardent mind and honest aspirations, Ushakov before going abroad served as Secretary to the State Secretary GN. Thermal and a lot of work to compile the Riga Commercial charter. He enjoyed the location Teplova, had an impact on business: he predicted the rapid rise of the administrative ladder, "many were taught to read it in advance". When Catherine II ordered the nobles to send in Leipzig University, Ushakov, desiring to form himself, he decided to neglect the opening careers and pleasures, and to go abroad to work together with young men to sit on the student's bench. Through application Teplova, he managed to fulfill his wish. Ushakov was a man more experienced and mature than others his companions, who immediately recognized, and its credibility. He was worthy of acquired influence, "the hardness of thoughts, freely saying they" were his distinguishing characteristic, and it is particularly attracted to him his young comrades. He served as an example for other students major study, conducted by reading them, inspire them to firm moral convictions. He taught, . example, . that he can overcome his passions, . who tries to learn the true definition of man, . who decorates his mind useful and pleasant knowledge, . Who is the greatest delight is in the, . to be useful to the fatherland and to be known to the world,
. Health Ushakov was upset before the trip abroad, and in Leipzig he had spoiled him, and partly a way of life, partly over-employment, fell ill and dangerous. When the doctor, at his insistence, told him that "tomorrow he lives no longer be involved," he firmly met by a sentence of death, though, "descending into the tomb, for onym saw nothing". He said goodbye to his friends, then calling for a one Radishcheva gave it with all his papers and said to him: "Remember that you need in life to have the rules in order to be saved". Last words Ushakova "indelibly marked on the memory Radishchev. Before his death, terrible suffering, Ushakov requested a poison that quickly ended his torment. He denied this, but it is still planted in Radishchev thought, "that life is unbearable to be forcibly aborted". Ushakov, died in 1770, Mr.. - Classes of students in Leipzig were quite diverse. They listened to the philosophy at Platner, who, when he was in 1789, Mr.. visited Karamzin, with fond memories of his Russian pupils, especially of him and Radishchev. Students listened to lectures and Gellц?rt or, as expressed Radishchev, "enjoyed his teaching in literary sciences". History of the students have listened Boehm, right - at Gommelya. According to one official reports in 1769, all General is surprised to recognize that in so short a time have they (the Russian students) notable successes, and not inferior in knowledge to those who long ago there enrolled. Especially the same praise and are exceedingly adept: first, the senior Ushakov (among the students had two Ushakov), and for him, and Yanov Radishcheva, which surpassed the expectations of their teachers ". In its "of will" Radishchev studied medicine and chemistry, not as a fan, but seriously, so that he could pass the examination at the doctor and then successfully dealt with treatment. Classes chemistry also forever remain one of his favorite cases. In general, he gained significant expertise in Leipzig in the natural sciences. Instruction prescribed for students to learn languages, how went this study, we have no information, but Radishchev knew the languages German, French and Latin. Later, he learned English and Italian language. After spending several years in Leipzig, he, like his comrades, much forgotten the Russian language, so that on his return to Russia he studied under the guidance of renowned Khrapovitsky, Secretary Catherine. - Read the students a lot, and mostly French writers of the Enlightenment, fond of the works of Mably, Rousseau, and especially Helvetius. In general, Radishchev in Leipzig, where he stayed five years, acquired a variety of serious scientific knowledge and became one of the most educated men of his time not only in Russia. He did not cease work and diligent reading of his life. His works are imbued with the spirit of "enlightenment" XVIII century and the ideas of French philosophy. In 1771,. with some of his comrades Radishchev returned to St. Petersburg and soon came to serve in the Senate, as a comrade and friend of his, Kutuzov (see), the recorder, with the rank of titular councilor. They have long served in the Senate: they prevented the poor knowledge of Russian language, irked by the clerks association, mistreatment of superiors. Kutuzov turned into military service, and Radishchev entered the headquarters of the commander in Petersburg, General-in-Chief Bruce, as the chief auditor, and provided in good faith and courageous attitude to his duties. In 1775, Mr.. Radishchev retired from the Army with the rank of second major. One of his comrades Radishcheva to Leipzig, Rubanovskii, introduced him to the family of his elder brother, whose daughter, Anne Vasil, he married. In 1778, Mr.. Radishchev was re-defined to serve in the state kamerts-board at assesorskuyu job. He quickly and has adjusted well, even with the details of the assigned panel of trade cases. Soon he had to participate in the settlement of one case where a group of employees, if the charges were subject to severe punishment. All board members were in favor of the prosecution, but Radishchev by examining the case, disagreed with this view and strongly rose in defense of the accused. He agreed to sign the verdict and filed a dissenting opinion, in vain to persuade frightened favor the president, Count ap. Vorontsov - he did not concede, had to report on its persistence Vorontsov. The last really angry at first, assuming a Radishchev any impure motives, but still demanded the matter to himself, carefully revised it and agreed with the Radishcheva: the defendants were acquitted. From board Radishchev in 1788, Mr.. was transferred to serve in the St. Petersburg Customs, assistant manager and then manager. At work at the office Radishchev also had issued his selflessness, devotion to duty, a serious attitude to their work. Russian language classes and reading Radishcheva led to his own literary experiments. First, he published a translation of the works of Mably: "Reflections on Greek history" (1773), and then began compiling the history of Russia of the Senate, but written destroyed. After the death of his beloved wife (1783) he began to seek solace in literary work. There improbable story about participation in Radishcheva "painters" Novikova. More likely that Radishchev participated in the publication of "Mail of Spirits" Krylova, but it can not be proved. Undoubtedly Radishcheva literary career began only in 1789, . when they were type a "Life of Fyodor Ushakov with the initiation of some of his works" ( "The Right of Punishment and the Death Penalty", . "About Love", . "Letters on the first book Gelvetsieva writings about the mind"),
. Taking advantage of the decree of Catherine II on the free printing, Radishchev started his printing press at his home, and in 1790, Mr.. printed in it his "Letter to a friend, residence in Tobolsk, on the title of his duty". In this short essay describes the opening of the monument to Peter the Great and incidentally makes some general ideas about public life, power, etc.. "Letter" was just a kind of "breakdown", followed by Radishchev released his main work: "Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow, with an epigraph from Telemahidy:" The monster Oblomov, mischievous, is enormous, and stozevno layay ". The book begins with a dedication "A. M. K., my dear friend ", t. e. someone Radishcheva Kutuzov. In the dedication that the author writes: "I looked around me - my soul was troubled by human suffering". He realized that man himself is to blame for this suffering, because that "he looks not just at the objects around him". To achieve happiness should take away the veil covering the natural feeling. Anyone can become an accomplice in the bliss of their own kind, resisting misleading. "Behold, the idea has induced me to chart what you'll read". "Journey" is divided into chapters, the first of which is called "Departure" and the following are the names of the stations between St. Petersburg and Moscow, the book ends with the arrival and the exclamation: "Moscow!" Moscow! " The book was quickly bought up. Her bold arguments about serfdom, and other unfortunate events then social and public life attracted the attention of Catherine the Great, which someone brought the "Journey". Although the book was published with the permission of council decorum, t. e. established with the permission of censorship, but still against the author was raised by the prosecution. At first they did not know who the author, since his name was put up for the book, but they arrested the merchant Zotov, the store that sold "The Journey", will soon learn that the book was written and published Radishchev. He was also arrested, his case was "entrusting" known Sheshkovskomu. Catherine had forgotten that Radishchev and the Corps of Pages, and overseas study "natural law" by imperial order, and what she preached and was granted a permission to preach the principles similar to those pursued a "Journey". She reacted to the book Radishcheva with strong personal irritation, she was asking questions paragraphs Radishchev itself through Bezborodko managed the whole affair. Planted in the castle and questioned terrible Sheshkovskim, Radishchev declared his remorse, renounced his title, but at the same time in the testimony of his often expressed the same views, which were cited in the "Travel". Expression of remorse Radishchev hoped to soften threatened to punish him, but at the same time he was unable to conceal their beliefs. In Radishcheva questioned many of those involved in the publication and sale of "Travels", the investigators were looking for, whether he Radishcheva accomplices, but they were not. It is significant that the investigation produced Sheshkovskim, has been communicated to the House Criminal Court, which, by imperial decree, was transferred to a case of "Journey". Fate Radishcheva was previously solved: he was found guilty of the decree on stand trial. Criminal Chamber has made a very brief investigation, the contents of which were identified in a letter to the Chief Bezborodko in St. Petersburg Earl Bruce. Target chamber was only giving a legitimate form of foregone conclusion condemnation Radishcheva in finding and closing the laws under which he was to be sentenced. This task was not easy, because it was hard to blame the author for the book, published with the proper authorization, and for the views that have recently enjoyed the patronage. Criminal Chamber has applied to Radishchev Article Code is the attack on sovereign's health, about conspiracies, treason, and sentenced him to death. The sentence, passed in the Senate and then to the Council, was approved in both instances and submitted to Catherine. 4 th September 1790, Mr.. held just decree, . who admitted Radishcheva guilty of a crime of the oath and post citizen, . publication of the book, . "filled with the most hazardous speculations, . destroy the peace of the public, . impair the respect due to the authorities, . seeking to, . to generate resentment among the people against the rulers and authorities and, . Finally, . abusive and violent izrazheniyami against the royal dignity and power "; wine Radishcheva such, . that he deserves the death penalty, . to which court sentenced, . but "for charity and for the universal joy", . on the occasion of the conclusion of peace with Sweden, . Death sentence commuted his exile in Siberia, . Ilimskij in jail, . "on a desperate decade-long stay",
. The decree was then carried out. Sad fate Radishcheva attracted worldwide attention: the verdict seemed improbable, . in society, not just rumors arose, . that Radishchev forgiven, . returns from exile, . But these rumors are not justified, . and Radishchev Ilimsk stayed in until the end of the reign of Catherine,
. His position in Siberia was facilitated by the fact that the graph ap. Vorontsov went all the time to support the exiled writer, gave him protection from the bosses in Siberia, sent him books, magazines, scientific instruments and pr. For him to Siberia came his wife's sister, EV. Rubanovskaya, and brought the younger children (older stayed with relatives for education). In Ilimsk Radishchev married EV. Rubanovskaya. He felt a desire for literary work, even in the fortress during the trial, took the resolution to write and wrote a story about Philaret the Merciful. In Ilimsk he was also engaged in treating patients, generally trying to help than anyone could have done so, according to contemporaries, "the benefactor of the country". His thoughtful activity extended to 500 miles around Ilimsk. Emperor Paul shortly after his accession Radishcheva returned from Siberia (Supreme Order November 23, 1796), . with Radishchev was ordered to live at his estate Kaluga Province, . hamlet Nemcova, . but for his conduct and correspondence were ordered to watch the Governor,
. At the request of Radishcheva he was allowed the emperor to go to Saratov Province to visit the elderly and sick parents. After the reign of Alexander I Radishchev received complete freedom, he was summoned to St. Petersburg and was appointed a member of the commission for drafting laws. The story (in the articles of Pushkin and Paul Radishchev) that Radishchev amaze everyone "youth Sedin, filed a joint project of the necessary legislative reforms - a project where he again moved forward the release of the peasants and the pr. Since this project is not in the affairs of the commission, . then there were doubts expressed in the very existence of it, but, . except the testimony of Pushkin and Paul Radishcheva, . we have undeniable evidence of a contemporary, . Elias, . who was also a member of the commission and should have good knowledge of the case,
. Undoubtedly, in any case, that this project, as it conveys the son Radishcheva coincides with the direction and nature of the works Radishcheva. Same Ilinskij and other contemporary witness, Born, certify as true of another tradition, the death of Radishchev. The legend is said that when Radishchev brought his liberal project of the necessary reforms, a committee chairman, Earl Zavadovsky, gave him a reprimand for his way of thinking, sternly reminding him of past hobbies, and even referring to Siberia. Radishchev, people with very disorganized health, with shattered nerves, was so shocked reprimand and threats Zavadovskiy that he decided to commit suicide, drank poison and died in terrible agony. He would be remembered as an example Ushakov, who taught him that "life unbearable to be forcibly aborted". Radishchev died on the night of September 12, 1802. and buried in the Volkov Cemetery. - The main literary work Radishcheva - A Journey from Petersburg to Moscow ". The writing is wonderful, . one hand, . as the most dramatic expression of the influence, . what we have acquired in the XVIII century French philosophy of the Enlightenment, . on the other - as a visual proof, . that the best representatives of this effect could apply the ideas of the Enlightenment to Russian life, . to Russian conditions,
. "Journey" Radishcheva as it consists of two parts: theoretical and practical. In the first we see the constant borrowing of the author of various European writers. Radishchev himself explained that he wrote his book in imitation "Iorikovu journey" and Stern was under the influence of the "History of India" Raynal, in the book are references to different authors, and many unlisted borrowing too easy to determine. Along with this we find in "The Journey" a permanent image of Russian life, Russian conditions and consistent application to them of the general principles of the Enlightenment. Radishchev - a supporter of freedom, he gives not only the image of all the ugly side of serfdom, but speaks of the necessity and possibility of liberation of the peasants. Radishchev attacks serfdom, not only in the name of abstract notions of freedom and dignity of the human personality: his book shows, . that he has been watching people's lives in reality, . that he had a vast knowledge of life, . on which his sentence was based, and serfdom,
. Funds that "Journey" provides for the abolition of serfdom, is also consistent with life, not excessively harsh. "The project in the future", . proposed Radishchev, . indicates the following measures: first of all freed servants and is prohibited to take farmers for household services, . - If a man takes, . the peasant is free; marriages are allowed farmers without the consent of the landlord and without outflow of money, farmers recognized the owners of movable estate and inheritance of land, . they processed; required, . furthermore, . Court equal, . full civil rights, . prohibition of punishment without trial, the peasants are allowed to buy land, the amount determined, . for which the farmer can swim, and finally, . comes complete abolition of slavery,
. Of course, this is a literary plan, which can not be regarded as a finished draft, but overall its foundation must be recognized and applicable for the time. The attack on serfdom - the main theme of "Journeys"; vain Pushkin called Radishcheva: "the enemy of slavery". Book Radishcheva affects, in addition, a number of other issues of Russian life. Radishchev arming itself against such parties of contemporary reality, . who now has long been condemned by history, these are his attacks on the enrollment of noblemen in the service of childhood, . injustice and greed of judges, . to completely arbitrary rulers and pr,
. "Journey" and raises questions that still are of vital importance, so it is arming itself against censorship, against the reception on the chiefs, against the merchant deceptions against debauchery and luxury. Attacking him on the modern system of education and upbringing, Radishchev depicts an ideal, largely not been implemented so far. He said that the government exists for the people, not vice versa, that happiness and wealth of the people are measured well-being of the population, rather than the welfare of a few individuals and pr. General nature Radishcheva outlook reflects its very sharp "Ode to Liberty", placed in the "Journey" (largely reproduced in the I t. "Russian poetry" A.S. Vengerov). Poems Radishcheva "Powerful story Bova" imitate Pushkin. Radishchev - not the poet, his poems are mostly very weak. His prose is, by contrast, often has considerable merit. Forgotten Russian language abroad, . then studied at Lomonosov, . Radishchev often makes sense both of these conditions: that it is hard and artificial, but at the same time in a number of places he, . entrained depicted subject, . says simply, . sometimes living, . spoken language,
. Many scenes in "Journey" striking in its vitality, showing the power of observation and humor of the author. In 1807 - 1811 years in St. Petersburg was published the collected works Radishcheva in six parts, but without the "Travel" and with some omissions in the Life Ushakov ". The first edition of "Travels" were destroyed in part by Radishchev before his arrest, partly by the authorities, left it a few dozen copies of. Demand for it has been great, and its rewriting. Masson suggests that many were paying significant money for something to get "Journey" to read. Some excerpts from the "Travels" were published in various publications: "Northern Messenger Martynov (in 1805), in Pushkin's article, which appeared in print for the first time in 1857, in the preface MA. Antonovich to translate Shlosserovoy XVIII century. Not always such reprints checkered. When Sopikov placed in his bibliography (1816) Initiation of the "Travels", a page that has been cut, reprinted and preserved in its complete form only in very few instances. In 1858, Mr.. "Journey" was published in London, in a book with the works of Prince Scherbatov: "The damage of morals in Russia, with a foreword by Herzen. The text of "Travels" given here with some distortions in the corrupted copies. From the same edition of "Journey" was reprinted in Leipzig, in 1876, Mr.. In 1868, Mr.. took Supreme Order, is allowed to publish "The Journey" on the basis of general rules of censorship. In the same year appeared reprinting books Radishcheva made Shigin, but with big gaps, and again on the distorted copy, not original. In 1870, Mr.. P.A. Efremov undertake the publication of the complete works of Radishcheva (with some additions to the manuscript), subject to the full text, and "Travel" for the publication in 1790, Mr.. The publication was printed, but the light did not work: it was seized and destroyed. In 1888. A.S. Suvorin was issued "The Journey", but only in 99 copies. In 1869, Mr.. PI. Bartenev reprinted in the "Compendium of XVIII Century," Life F.V. Ushakov ", in" Russian Antiquities "1871. reprinted "Letter to a friend, residence in Tobolsk". Academician MI. Sukhomlinov published in his study on Radishchev story about Radishcheva Filarete. The head of the "Travel" on Lomonosov published in I t. "Russian poetry" SA. Vengerov. Ibid reproduces all the poems Radishcheva, not excluding the "Ode to Liberty". On behalf Radishcheva lay a long time ban, it is hardly found in the press. Shortly after his death there were some articles about him, but then his name almost disappears in the literature and is very rare; about him are only fragmentary and incomplete data. Batiushkov Radishcheva introduced in the formulation of the program works on Russian literature. Bestuzhev Pushkin wrote: "How can the article on Russian literature forget Radishcheva? Whom do we remember?". Later, Pushkin, the experience convinced that to remember about the author "Travel" is not so easy: his article on Radishchev was omitted by the censor and appeared in print only after twenty years of the poet's death. Only in the second half of the fifties with the name Radishcheva lift the ban, the press appears many articles and essays about him, printed materials of interest. Full biography Radisheva, however, there is still no. In 1890, Mr.. centenary of the arrival of "Travels" had very few articles about Radishchev. In 1878, Mr.. Highest Assent was given to the opening in Saratov "Radischevskaya museum, established grandson Radishcheva artist Bogoliubov, and represents an important educational center for the Volga. Grandson worthy tribute to the memory of his "distinguished" as stated in the decree, the grandfather. The principal articles Radishchev: "On the death Radishcheva, poetry and prose IM. Bourne ( "Scroll of Muses, 1803). Biographies: the IV h. "Dictionary of memorable people of the Russian land" Bantysh-Kamensky and the second part of the "Dictionary of secular writers" Metropolitan Eugene. Two articles of Pushkin in V volume of his works (an explanation of their importance in an article in. Yakushkin, "Reading History and Antiquities of Russian, 1886, Prince. 1 and separately). Radishcheva biographies written by his sons Nicholas ( "Russian Antiquities", 1872, t. VI) and Paul ( "Russian Messenger", 1858, "23, with annotations MN. Longinov). Articles Longinov "п?.п?. Kutuzov AN. Radishchev "(" Contemporary ", 1856," 8), "Russian students at the University of Leipzig and the latest draft Radishcheva (" Bibliographical Notes ", 1859," 17), "Catherine the Great and Radishchev" ( "News", 1865, ? 28) and note in the Russian Archives ", 1869,? 8. "On the Russian comrades Radishcheva at the University of Leipzig" - paper to. Groth, No. 3. IX T. "Izvestia" II Branch of the Academy of Sciences. The participation of Radishcheva "painters" cm. Retrieve Ph.D.. Kobenko in "Bibliography Notes", 1861,? 4, and notes P.A. Ephraim to the publication of the Painter ", 1864. The participation Radishcheva in "Almost Spirits" cm. the story. Andreeva ( "Russian Invalid", 1868, "31), AN. Pypin (Journal Europe ", 1868, No. 5) and YA.K. Groth ( "Literary Life Krylov, annex XIV to the t. "Notes of the Academy of Sciences). On Radishchev "- Article. M. Shugurova, "Russian Archives", 1872, p.. 927 - 953. "The trial of a Russian writer in the XVIII century" - Article. V. Yakushin, "Russian Antiquities", 1882, September, here are documents from genuine cases of Radishchev; new and important documents about the case and in general about Radishchev given MI. Sukhomlinov in his monograph: 'AN. Radishchev "; XXXII volume" Compendium of the Division of Russian Language and Literature Academy of Sciences ", and separately (St. Petersburg, 1883), and then in Volume I of" Studies and papers "(St. Petersburg, 1889). About Radishchev described in the manuals on the history of Russian literature Koenig, Galakhov, Stoyunina, Karaulov, Porfir'eva and others, as well as in the writings Longinov "Novikov and Moscow Martinist, AN. Pypin "Social Movement under Alexander I", VI. Semevsky "peasant question in Russia", Shchapova "Socio-pedagogical conditions for the development of the Russian people," A.P. Pyatkovsky "From the history of our literary and social development, LN. Maikova "Father, his life and works". Materials relating Radishcheva biography, published in the "Readings of the Society of History and Antiquities of Russian", 1862, Prince. 4, and 1865, Prince. 3, in V and XII volumes Watch Prince Vorontsov ", in X t. "Compendium of the Imperial Russian Historical Society", in Collected Works of Catherine II placed its rescripts case Radishcheva; Catherine's letters about the case also printed in the "Russian Archive" (1863, "3, and 1872, p.. 572); report Irkutsk namestnicheskogo Board of Radishchev - in "Russian Antiquities", 1874, t. VI, page. 436. About Radishchev in modern intercepted letters sm. in the article "Russian freethinkers in the reign of Catherine II" ( "Russian Antiquities", 1874, January - March). Letters to relatives Zinoviev, one of his comrades Radishcheva - Russian Archives ", 1870,? 4 and 5. Some documents relating to the case of "Journey" Radishcheva, with corrections and additions to the manuscripts, reprinted P.A. Ephraim in the collected works Radishcheva 1870. About Radishchev described in the notes Khrapovitsky, Princess Dashkova, Selivanovski ( "Bibliographical Notes", 1858, "17), Glinka, Elias (" Russian Archive ", 1879, No. 12), in" Letters of a Russian Traveler "Karamzin. Notes P.A. Ephraim to his do not show up edition. op. Radishcheva placed in the "Russian poetry" SA. Vengerov. Portrait Radishcheva was attached to the 1 st part of his writings, the publication in 1807, Mr.. (rather than the first edition of "Travels", as erroneously shown in Rovinsky in the "Dictionary of engraved portraits"); portrait engraved Vendramin. With the same engraving was made by an engraved portrait of Radishcheva Alexeyev, for unreleased second volume of "Meeting the portraits of famous Russians" Beketova. With beketovskogo large lithograph of a portrait done for a "Bibliography Notes of 1861,? 1. Snapshot from a portrait Vendramin is given in "Illustrations of 1861,? 159, for article about Zotov Radishchev; immediately and look Ilimsk. In the edition of the Wolf "Russian people" (1866) placed a very bad engraved portrait of Radishcheva Vendramin (without signature). By the 1870 edition. enclosed a copy of the same Vendramin in good engraving executed in Leipzig Brockhaus. In "The Historical Gazette 1883, April, at station. Nezelenova placed politipazhny Radishcheva portrait with Alekseevskogo portrait; politipazh this is repeated in the History of Catherine II "Brikner and" Alexander I "Schilder. Rovinsky placed shot from vendraminievskogo portrait in the "Dictionary of engraved portraits, and a photo of Alekseevskogo portrait - in Russian iconography" under? 112. V. Yakushkin.
His son, Nikolai, also engaged in literature, among other things, translated almost the whole of August Lafontaine. He was close to Zhukovsky, Merzlyakov, Voeikov served as a leader in the Kuznetsk district of the Saratov province, left his father's biography, published in "Russian Antiquities" (1872, t. VI). In 1801, Mr.. he published "Alyosha Popovich and Churila Plenkovich, heroic pesnotvorenie" (Moscow), exerted a strong influence on the "Ruslan and Lyudmila Pushkina (cm. Professor. Vladimirov, in Kiev of University Izvestiya, 1895,? 6).


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