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Barkley (Barkla), Charles G.

( English physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, 1917)

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Biography Barkley (Barkla), Charles G.
June 27, 1877, Mr.. - October 23, 1944
English physicist Charles Glover Barkla was born in g. Uidnese (Lancashire). His parents - John Martin Barkley, employee chemical company, and Sarah (nee Glover) Barkla. B. graduated from high school at the Liverpool Institute and in 1895. enrolled in the University College in Liverpool on the fellowship fund, where he studied mathematics and experimental physics. In 1898, Mr.. He received a bachelor's degree summa cum laude in physics. The following year he received a master's degree.
On scholarship at Trinity College (Cambridge) in 1899. B. studied physics at George Stokes and conducted research at the Cavendish Laboratory under the direction Dzh.Dzh. Thomson. Eighteen months later, he moved to King's College, where he was able to sing in his famous choir, enjoying an excellent baritone soloist, he often. In 1902, Mr.. B. declined from a choral scholarship to Cambridge and returned to Liverpool as a Fellow here two years later, he received his doctorate in physics. He remained at Liverpool until 1909. first as a laboratory assistant, then assistant and, finally, a lecturer at special rates. All these years, B. worked on the study of X-rays, which began as early as 1901, the third year of his stay in Cambridge. In 1909, Mr.. He left Liverpool to take a bet professor of physics at King's College in London.
Discovery of X-rays (X-rays) Wilhelm Roentgen in 1895. provoked strong controversy among physicists. Some believed that these rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation like light, while others believed that they consist of particles. The experiment raised B. in 1904, confirmed the notion that X-rays are electromagnetic waves, resulting from inhibition of electrons, which strike the anode cathode-ray tube. Classical electromagnetic theory predicts (and experiment B. confirmed this), . that such fluctuations should be partially polarized, . which meant, . that radiation, . emitted in the plane, . perpendicular to the movement of electrons, . has a strong electric field in the direction, . perpendicular to this plane, . than in the directions, . parallel to it.,
. In 1897
. it was observed that under the influence of X-rays incident on the substance - whether in solid, liquid or gas - there is a secondary radiation. In 1903, Mr.. B. published its first results on the secondary radiation, which he believed was caused solely by the scattering of the primary beam. Set by the result that the scattering intensity increases proportionally to the atomic weight of the substance, which is scattered, gave the weight of the electronic theory of matter, while not yet fully recognized.
Further observations of B. on X-rays showed, . that in the case of the heavier elements of the secondary radiation is actually composed of two components: the same X-rays, . that the primary radiation, . less penetrating, . or more 'soft', . radiation, . which is emitted by the scattering material and characteristic of him,
. This softer radiation, which became known as the characteristic radiation penetrating force was increased according to the situation occupied by the radiating element in the periodic table. HJ. Moseley later used this result to establish the meaning of atomic number (number of units of charge at the nucleus), which was an important step to understanding the structure of the atomic nucleus.
By 1911, Mr.. B. showed that the characteristic radiation of heavy elements is of two types: a more penetrating radiation, which he called the K-radiation, and less penetrating, which he called L-radiation. Later discovered, . that the K-and L-emission occur when transitions of inner electrons (after, . they were previously filed by X-rays) in the atom, . quantum model which was proposed by Niels Bohr and Arnold Sommerfeld to explain the emission of visible light.,
. Research B
. brought him international recognition: he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for 1917. 'for the discovery of the characteristic X-ray radiation of elements' (Moseley, who could share the Nobel Prize with BA, was killed in the fighting at Gallipoli during the First World War). 'Opening B. the characteristic X-rays proved to be a very important phenomenon for research in the field of physics' - wrote G.D. Granqvist, a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, in 1918. special article. 'Opening of X-ray diffraction on crystals has in his hands a means of measuring the lengths of their waves, and the ensuing investigation of K-and L-series bear fruit of great importance for understanding the internal structure of atoms'. Because during the war, visits were limited, the award ceremony had to be postponed, and only in 1920,. B. able to read his Nobel lecture 'The characteristic X-rays' ( 'Characteristic Rontgen Radiation').
Since 1913. B. was a professor of natural philosophy at Edinburgh University in Scotland, and remained in that post until his death. But by the time he received the Nobel Prize, his credibility as a physicist began to fall, and he sealed himself off from the physical community. Respected as a strong experimenter, he nevertheless failed to realize his own weakness as a theorist. He ignored the experimental work of other scientists and increasingly overestimated the problems that he studied. In 1916, Mr.. He rejected the quantum theory developed by Max Planck, Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr. By this time the belief B. that energy is quantized, with hardly hold water in the face of obvious facts. He refused to recognize the existence of open Artur X. Compton in 1923. Compton effect, which played a crucial role in the development of quantum theory in the 20-ies. (In the Compton effect the incident X-ray beam knocks an electron from the atom and is scattered, thus confirming that X-rays as well as visible light, and sometimes act like particles.) After 1916. B. devoted himself to the study of what he called 'J-phenomenon', in which there is radiation that are more penetrating than the radiation of K-type. However, this phenomenon has never been confirmed.
In 1907, Mr.. B. married Mary Esther Cowell, daughter of the chief bailiff Isle of Man. They had three sons and one daughter. Shortly after the death of his youngest son during the Second World War, health B. shaken. He died at his home in Edinburgh on 23 October 1944
B. characterized by friendliness and gentle nature, was a deeply religious Methodist Church parishioner. Over the years, staying a member of the Examination Committee of the British universities, he earned a reputation as a knowledgeable and honest man. Besides singing, he loved to play golf and ride a car on the Scottish foothills.
B. was a member of the Royal Society of London, was awarded the Hughes Medal of the Society (1917). He was awarded an honorary degree from Liverpool University and several other educational institutions.

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Barkley (Barkla), Charles G., photo, biography
Barkley (Barkla), Charles G., photo, biography Barkley (Barkla), Charles G.  English physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, 1917, photo, biography
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