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WILSON (Wilson), CH.T.R.

( Scottish physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, 1927)

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Biography WILSON (Wilson), CH.T.R.
February 14, 1869, Mr.. - November 15, 1959
The Scottish physicist Charles Thomson Rees Wilson was born on a farm near Glenkorsa, in the family of John Wilson, a farmer, breeding sheep, and Annie Clark Wilson (nee Harper) from Glasgow. B., most of his life known as the H-T-P, was the youngest of eight children, who had his father's two marriages. The boy was four years old when his father died and the family moved to Manchester, England, where they have great support relatives. Visiting Grinheyskuyu academic school in Manchester, IN. expressed an interest in science, never missing an opportunity to prepare drugs for observation under the microscope. After leaving school in 1884. He, using financial support of his half-brother William, went to Owens College (now University of Manchester). There he studied science for three years and received a bachelor's degree in 1887, Mr.. Then he stayed in college for another year to study philosophy, Latin and Greek.
In 1888. V. enrolled at Sydney Sussex College in Cambridge at the fellowship fund. While enrolled at Owens College, he planned to study medicine, he was now convinced that his vocation - Physics. Degree from Cambridge in 1892, in. stayed there for research, but because his brother William died in the same year, the family needed now in its financial aid. V. left Cambridge in 1894 to become a teacher in a Bradford secondary school, but after a short time felt that it pulls back and continue their studies. Earning a living as a laboratory for medical students, he continued experiments in the Cavendish Laboratory, led by J. Thompson, whose own research soon led to the discovery of the electron.
After rising during the holidays in 1894. on Ben Nevis mountain peak in Scotland. remained under the influence of optical phenomena, such as a ring around the sun, which are formed when the sun shines through the clouds and fog, it gave impetus to his research. At the beginning of next year, he began to attempt to reproduce these phenomena in the laboratory using an instrument called the expansion chamber, which was intended to simulate fog and rain. 'Almost immediately, - he recalled - I ran into something of much greater interest than the optical phenomena, which I intended to study'. It was known that water vapor in the air condenses around dust particles that serve as nuclei for the drops, and it was assumed that the clouds can not form in an atmosphere free from dust. However,. found that if you remove all dust from the camera, using the re-condensation and precipitation, then the fog and rain will still be formed if the concentration of water vapor in the air is high. This discovery led him to the realization that water droplets can be formed and condenses around ions (electrically charged atoms or molecules).
Studying open Wilhelm Roentgen at the end of 1895. нї-rays (X rays), in. use the primitive X-ray tube to energize the air in his cell. Formed in this dense fog not only confirmed his theory of condensation, but there (are then questioned by some physicists), atoms, molecules and ions. In the course of this work in. very significantly improved the design of their cameras, which became known as the condensation (ionization) chamber.
In the summer of 1895. V. re-visited in the Scottish mountains, where storms, from which 'raised the hair on the head', initiated his interest in the study of the electric field of the Earth. In 1896, Mr.. He was awarded a scholarship Clerk Maxwell at the Cavendish Laboratory and the next three years he studied ion condensation and atmospheric electricity. Thanks to his meticulous experimental work, managed to obtain important information about the behavior of ions in gases and their impact on the atmosphere.
In 1899. V. conducted research for the Meteorological Council, the following year he was elected a Fellow of Sidney Sussex College and was appointed lecturer. He continued his studies at the Cavendish laboratory, conducting experiments with the condensing chamber until 1904, thereafter it increasingly became interested in the study of atmospheric electricity. He invented a new form of electroscope (instrument for measuring the voltage), which was 100 times more sensitive than previous models, and using such a device it became available measurement of the electric field in the atmosphere.
In. returned to work on the condensation in 1910, intending to use the camera to record flying inside the atomic particles. His charge of alpha particles (helium nucleus) and beta particles (electrons) on the path segment ionize gas molecules. V. decided that water vapor condensing around the ionized molecules to form the traces, which can be fixed on the emulsion. Adapting the camera for this purpose, he said in 1911 that saw the first 'delightful cloud traces', condensed along the tracks of alpha-and beta particles. Photos of tracks made by him, made a deep impression in the scientific world. They served as a visible evidence of particles whose existence hitherto was set only indirectly, the particles can be distinguished from each other with incredible clarity.
In 1913, Mr.. V. was appointed as an observer in the field of Meteorological Physics in Solar Physics Observatory at Cambridge, where he remained until 1918, continuing to conduct research with his camera and studying atmospheric electricity. In the First World War he worked on the problem of protecting aircraft from fires caused by lightning and other electrical discharges.
Something like an ionization chamber B., wrote J. J. Thomson, 'difficult to find, she is an example of ingenuity, insight, ability to work with his hands, the continued patience and unwavering dedication'. This work became the foundation upon which further research conducted their P.M.S. Blackett, Peter Kapitza, Walther Bothe, Irene Joliot-Curie and others. Positron and other elementary particles were discovered with the help of the ionization chamber B., which has also become an invaluable tool for the study of cosmic rays. V. continued to work with the camera until 1923, when he published their findings in two recent articles. In one of them was given the experimental evidence that the interaction of X-rays with the atoms of electrons knocked out from there - a fact, as predicted earlier in the same year, Arthur X. Compton.
Since 1923. V. focused mainly on the study of atmospheric phenomena, inventing devices that measure the total charge carried by lightning, and other characteristics of thunderstorms. Submissions. the origin of electric fields in thunderstorms, and the atmosphere was an innovative contribution to the understanding of these phenomena. Since 1925. by 1934. He was professor of natural philosophy at Cambridge.
In 1927, Mr.. V. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics "for the method of visual detection of the trajectories of electrically charged particles by means of condensation of steam '. 'Although from the time, . you suggested their elegant method of condensation, . has flowed a lot of time, . - Said Kai Siegbahn, . Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, . at presentation winner, . - The value of your discovery during this time increased significantly as through your tireless research, . and because of the results, . obtained by other '.,
. Retiring retired from Cambridge in 1934, in
. returned to Scotland, settling near the place where he was born. Always loved nature, he and his eighty-odd years has continued to make mountain climbing and long walks on the outskirts. At the age of eighty-six years, he first took to the air and was fascinated watching the storm from the aircraft. He introduced his latest article on the storm, Royal Society of London in 1956, being the oldest member of this society.
In 1907, Mr.. V. married Jessie Fraser, Dick, daughter of the Minister, they had two daughters and a son. V. was known as a gentle, quiet man, thirsty of knowledge of the laws of nature, but completely indifferent to the honor and prestige. Thompson described his work as 'moving forward without rest and bustle'. After a short illness in. died at his home in Karlopse, near Edinburgh, 15 November 1959
In addition to the Nobel Prize in. Hughes was awarded a medal (1911), . Royal (1922) and Copley (1935) Royal Society of London, . as well as the Hopkins Prize, Cambridge Philosophical Society (1920), . Gunning Prize of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (1921) and the Howard Potts Medal Franklinovskogo Institute (1925),
. He was ennobled in 1937. In addition, he was the holder of numerous honorary degrees.

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WILSON (Wilson), CH.T.R., photo, biography
WILSON (Wilson), CH.T.R., photo, biography WILSON (Wilson), CH.T.R.  Scottish physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, 1927, photo, biography
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