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HESSE (Hess), Victor F.

( Austro-American physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, 1936)

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Biography HESSE (Hess), Victor F.
June 24, 1883, Mr.. - December 17, 1964
. Austro-American physicist Victor Franz Hess was born in the castle Wallenstein in the Austrian province of Styria in the family Vinzensa Hess - the chief forester of the estate of Prince Oettingen-Wallerstein - and nee Seraphine Edle von Grossbauer-Valdshtat
. From 1893 to 1901. He studied at the gymnasium, after which entered the University of Graz. In 1906, Mr.. G. doctorate in physics 'with mentions'.
After defending Mr.. going to do research on optics at the University of Berlin under the leadership of Paul Drude, but after the suicide Drude was forced to change their plans. Working demonstrator and lecturer at the University of Vienna, Mr.. interested in research of Franz Exner and Egon von Shveydlera on the Effects of Ionizing Radiation Radioactive. Such radiation arise in cases where the atoms of unstable elements such as uranium or thorium, emit 'clumps' (portions) of energy and positive or negative particles. Under the influence of radiation surrounding the source of the atmosphere is conductive, ie. ionized. This kind of radioactivity can be detected by an electroscope - the device that loses a reported him to the electric charge under the action of radiation.
Working with 1910. an assistant researcher at the Institute of radium studies at the University of Vienna, Mr.. learned about his colleagues conducted experiments to determine the source of ionizing radiation in the atmosphere. He became known and that a few months earlier Theodor Wulf measured the ionization of the atmosphere in Paris. Measurements were made with Wolf, the Eiffel Tower, and showed that at its peak (at an altitude of 320 m) the radiation level is much higher than at its base. These Woolf disagreed with the then existing theory that radiation could come only from the ground. Wolfe suggested that the unusually high level of radiation at the top caused by radiation from reaching the Earth's atmosphere. He appealed to other scholars with a proposal to test his hypothesis, running into the atmosphere by using balloons measuring devices.
The following year, Mr.. create devices that can withstand significant changes in temperature and pressure during ascent to high altitudes. G. calculated that the maximum altitude at which the Earth's radiation could ionize the atmosphere, equal to 500 m. In the next two years he was with the Austrian club balloon launched ten aerozondov. 'I was able to show, . - He recalled, . - That the ionization [in electroscope] decreased with increasing height above the ground (by reducing the influence of radioactive substances in the ground), . but starting from a height of 1000 m increased markedly and at an altitude of 5000 m reached values, . many times greater than observed on the surface of the Earth ',
. These data led him to conclude that ionization could be caused by penetration into the atmosphere of an unknown radiation from outer space.
The fact that the radiation came from outer space, but does not emanate from the sun, T. convinced the results of night launches, during which there was no lowering of the radiation in the upper atmosphere. In 1925, Mr.. new radiation was named the American physicist Robert A. Milliken 'cosmic rays'. Experiments G. drew attention to the cosmic rays of other physicists, including Dr. Karl. Anderson discovered the positron, positively charged particle with mass equal to the mass of the electron. He also, together with cX. Neddermeyerom opened mu-meson - an unusually short-lived particle with a mass about 200 times the mass of the electron. Later she became known as muons.
In 1919, Mr.. G. was appointed assistant professor of physics at the University of Vienna, but in 1920,. moved to Graz, where he became an associate professor of experimental physics. In 1921, he took leave, Mr.. went to the United States, where he headed a research laboratory of the United States Radium Corporation in Orange (New Jersey) and has also served as a consultant to the Mining Bureau of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the United States.
. Graz G
. back in 1923. Two years later he became a full professor and in 1929. was appointed dean of the Faculty. In 1931, Mr.. G. became professor of experimental physics and director of the Institute of Radiation Research at the University of Innsbruck. He created a Hafelekarom station on the study of cosmic rays.
For 'discovery of cosmic rays' G. with Karl D. Anderson was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 1936. Introducing the winners, Hans Pleyel from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences pointed out that Mr.. 'offered us new and important problems associated with the formation and destruction of substances, problems, opening new areas for research'.
In 1938, two months after Nazi Germany annexed Austria, Mr.. was removed from his post in Graz, as his wife was Jewish, and he was scientific adviser to the government of the deposed Austrian Chancellor Kurt von Schuschnigg. Receiving a warning about the arrest, Mr.. fled to Switzerland.
Invitation from the University Fordhemskogo resulted in 1938. G. and his wife in New York. In Fordheme G. taught physics and six years later became an American citizen. In 1946, Mr.. to have been asked to lead the world's first measurement of the radioactive fall-out in the United States after the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. The following year, Mr.. with the physicist William T. Makniffom developed a method for detecting small quantities of radium in the human body to measure gamma radiation.
In 1920, Mr.. G. married Marie Bertha Warner Breyski, who died in 1955. In the same year, Mr.. married Elizabeth M. Henke. After retirement in 1956. G. the end of life has continued to study cosmic rays and radioactivity. He died at Mount Vernon (New York) in 1964
During his long career Mr.. has been awarded numerous awards and honors, . including premium Liebenau Austrian Academy of Sciences (1919), . Prize Ernst Abbe Fund Carl Zeiss (1932), . honorary mark of Merit in the art and science 'of the Austrian Government (1959) and honorary degrees from the University of Vienna, . Loyola University Chicago, . Loyola University in New Orleans and Fordhemskogo University.,

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HESSE (Hess), Victor F., photo, biography
HESSE (Hess), Victor F., photo, biography HESSE (Hess), Victor F.  Austro-American physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, 1936, photo, biography
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