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Ting (Ting), Samuel C. C.

( American nuclear physicist Nobel Prize in Physics, 1976)

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Biography Ting (Ting), Samuel C. C.
genus. January 27, 1936
American nuclear physicist Samuel CH.CH. Ting was born in An-Arbor (Michigan). He was the eldest of three children Kuanhaya Ting, professor of technology, then working at the University of Michigan, and Van Dzunin, professor of psychology. Two months after his birth the family returned to mainland China, where T. spent his early childhood. As a teenager he lived in Taiwan, where his father taught at the Taiwan National University. T. returned to the U.S. in 1956. with only a hundred dollars and a poor knowledge of English, but with the desire to enter the University of Michigan. Supported Scholarship Fund, he made his point and in 1959. received a bachelor's degree in mathematics and physics, in 1960. - Master's degree in physics, and in 1962. - Ph.D. in physics.
T. spent 1963. at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) in Geneva (Switzerland), working together with the Italian physicist Giuseppe Cocconi in the proton synchrotron - Particle Accelerator. Two years later he joined the faculty of Columbia University in New York and soon became interested in the recent experiment conducted at the electron accelerator at Harvard University. The experiment was associated with 'production of pairs', ie. while obtaining the electron and its antiparticle, the positron by the collision of a quantum of radiation (photons) with a nuclear target. (Positron all identical electron, . except the sign of charge, . which is positive in the positron.) Experimental results, . seemed, . violated some of the predictions of quantum electrodynamics, . describes the interaction of matter with electromagnetic radiation.,
. Taking leave from Columbia University, T
. went to Hamburg (Germany), to repeat the Harvard experiment on the accelerator Deci (the name of the Deutsche Elektronen-Synchrotron). The Hamburg group, led by T. created a tool called the double-beam spectrometer designed to record the electron-positron pairs. Two beams of the spectrometer allows simultaneous measurement of pulses (the product of mass and velocity) of two particles (with the rejection of their large magnets), as well as the angles between their trajectories and the direction of the incoming beam. Separate measurement of particle velocities allows us to calculate their mass and to determine their total energy. Then they can identify and establish the correlation between the spectrometer could also be configured in such a way as to record only the particles with definite momentum, so that you can use different effective masses. Group received the experimental results showed that the description of pairs, given by quantum electrodynamics, right down to small distances of the order of one centimeter stotrillionnoy.
T. continued to explore the emergence of steam and look for new particles in the decay of which would form an electron-positron pairs. Simultaneously with his work on Deci it in 1967. began teaching physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and two years later became professor. With his team in 1971. T. began to search for particles in an accelerator proton capacity of 30 billion. electron-volts at Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island (New York)
T. searching for short-lived, relatively heavy particles. Because the large mass is equivalent to a very high energy, according to the theory of relativity, Albert Einstein, the desired particle can only appear in the bombardment of the target particles with high energy. For these studies primarily required a super-sensitive detector, . which would have been able to identify such an event, . as the emergence of electron-positron pair with measurable energy within one billionth of a second among billions of other interactions, . no interest, . and under the pressure of 10 trillion,
. protons per second. Was impossible to expect, . that a particle of this type can catch and observe directly, . but it should have been manifest, . split into electron-positron pair, . whose energy was equal to the energy of a vanished parent particle,
. This required a high resolution for large masses, ie. possibility of adding accurately known small portions of energy to the already existing high levels of energy and measure their impact on the formation of a pair. T. his colleagues decided to create an original version of the dual-beam spectrometer. Extremely complex machine, after it was managed carefully, each of its components, has earned almost from the first inclusion. This has added a new touch to one's reputation, which T. won in Hamburg, the reputation of a skillful, subtle experimenter with enviable acumen.
Group T. proton beam bombarded a beryllium target. In August 1974. After several months of work, they found a sharp narrow peak associated with the appearance of electron-positron pair, with 3.1 billion. electron volts. After several months of re-inspections that result in many different ways T. came to the conclusion that they are dealing with a new, previously unforeseen particle. It was twice as heavy as other comparable particle, . and its mass (in terms of equivalent energy) had a thousand times more narrow range, . indicated a small spread of energy states, . which could be the particle, . and could serve as a key to the identification of its nature,
. T. wanted to explore other related issues before publishing results, and have not made an instant message in the press. He merely informed George Bellettini, director of Frascati in Italy. Knowing where you want to search, physics of this laboratory is literally in two days confirmed the discovery of T. Articles T. and a group of laboratories in Frascati appeared in the same November issue of the journal 'Fizikal Review letterz' ( "Physical Review Letters").
When T. trying to find a name for the new particles, he was reminded that the names of stable particles excited group in modern physics, use uppercase letters, whereas the particles are more classical groups are designated by Greek letters. Since his experiments involved electromagnetic currents, which are indicated by J, he gave his name particle J (DJ). During a regular scheduled meeting in the Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC) in California, T. told about his discovery SLAC director Wolfgang Panofsky. Panofsky, in response told him that only a few days ago, a physicist at SLAC Burton Richter gave a similar opening. Comparing records, T. and Richter came to the conclusion that they had discovered the same particle, which Richter called оT (psi). In recognition of their independent from each other and almost simultaneous discoveries, it was decided to call a particle J / psi. Many physical laboratories have made changes to the plan of work to explore a new particle, whereas the nuclear scientists, theorists have tried to find her place in their theories.
T. and Richter were awarded in 1976. Nobel Prize in Physics "for pioneering work on the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new type '. According to Gest Eksponga, a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, during the presentation of the laureates, T. discovered a new particle, the study of the process of a pair of electrons and positrons at high energies. As for Richter, continued Ekspong, he sought to carry out a frontal collision of electrons with positrons, and the particle appeared when the conditions were precisely met. It seems Ekspong reminded that 'particles derive their properties from a deeper level of division of matter, which requires only a few brick building, called quarks'.
. Since the particle J-psi lived a few thousand times longer, . than could be explained, . on the assumption, . that there are only three fundamental particles, . called quarks, . which form various combinations, . physicists have suggested, . that the existence of this particle is due to the existence of a fourth quark, . called charm,
. Although the latter particle had been predicted earlier, the experimental confirmation of its existence before the opening of T. and Richter was absent.
With the help of accelerators at CERN and Desi T. continues to search for new particles. He also performs teaching duties at MIT, where in 1977. became the first professor of the institute.
In 1960, Mr.. T. married Kay Louise Kuehne, architect. They have two daughters. He is known as a quiet and an addictive personality, meticulous experimenter.
T. is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American National Academy of Sciences, the American, European and Italian Physical Society. He received a commemorative award named after Ernest Orlando Lawrence physics Agency for Research and Development of Energy in the U.S. (1976). He also has an honorary degree from the University of Michigan.

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Ting (Ting), Samuel C. C., photo, biography
Ting (Ting), Samuel C. C., photo, biography Ting (Ting), Samuel C. C.  American nuclear physicist Nobel Prize in Physics, 1976, photo, biography
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