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Alder (Alder), Kurt

( German chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1950)

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Biography Alder (Alder), Kurt
July 10, 1902, Mr.. - June 20, 1958
German chemist Kurt Alder was born in Germany, in Kenigshyutte (now Chorzow, Poland), near Katowice, where his father, Joseph Alder, worked as a teacher. The boy received his primary and secondary education in local schools. At the end of the First World War, shortly before gaining the independence of Poland, the family moved to Germany, Kiel, to preserve Germanic nationality. In 1922, Mr.. A. graduated from Berlin High School and enrolled at Berlin University to study chemistry.
And his training. continued in the Christian Albrechts University (now University of Kiel), where he worked with Otto Diels, Professor of Organic Chemistry and Director of University Institute of Chemical. In 1926, completing his thesis on the reactions with azodikarbonovym ether, A. was awarded a doctoral degree and became assistant Diels.
The following year, he and Diels began studying the diene synthesis. Used for the synthesis of diene diene hydrocarbons are compounds whose molecules contain a common structure for all four-carbon chain, where two double bonds are separated by a single bond. A. Diels and found that at room temperature, these diene hydrocarbons, attaching molecules dienophiles ( 'lovers Dienes'), form a new stable six-membered ring. They opened, . that this reaction is easily carried out between many different diene hydrocarbons and dienophiles, . are present in living systems, . and that as a result can form a potentially large number of different molecules,
. The principle of diene synthesis, of which A. with Diels was first reported in 1928, later became the main approach, which allowed chemists to investigate the mechanism of many previously studied organic reactions, and laid the foundations of polymer chemistry. Diels - Alder is used in industrial production of pharmaceuticals, dyes, lubricants, insecticides, synthetic rubbers and plastics.
During the next eight years, A. Diels and continued to work on clarifying the nature of diene synthesis. In 1930. A. was appointed a lecturer in organic chemistry at the University of Kiel, and in 1934. became extraordinary professor, as a specialist of high qualification for diene synthesis, a scientist was offered the post of the head is located in Leverkusen, the research department of the concern 'and. G. Farben Industrie ', which was adopted in 1936. Leverkusen A. studied the interaction of the dual butadiene (a type of diene hydrocarbons) with various dienophiles, . particularly styrene, . resulting in the formation synthetic rubber, . He also analyzed the mechanism of their reactions.,
. Returning in 1940
. to academic activities, AA, which is not attracted to the research carried out in wartime Germany, he was appointed supervisor of experimental chemistry and chemical technology at the University of Cologne. Simultaneously, he became director of the Chemical Institute of the University. Now A. the Application of diene synthesis, . that would clarify the chemical composition of the complex products of natural origin, . such, . example, . as: terpenes (isomeric hydrocarbons, . found in the oils of conifers), . ergosterin (parent substance of vitamin D) and vitamin D,
. Extremely capable stereohimika A. was also interested in why formed a particular reaction product, when possible formation of several isomers.
In 1949, the very same, when he was appointed dean of the Faculty of Philosophy University of Cologne, A. with Diels was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for the discovery and development of diene synthesis'. In his Nobel lecture A. an overview of the scientific research that led to his discovery, and described the structural factors that determine the possibility of formation of a specific configuration. The scientist noted that it was selective steric property of diene synthesis is 'one of the decisive factors that determine the value of diene synthesis as a method of'. 'If the fundamental property of diene synthesis was not discovered, . we would never have learned, . that it can be used to obtain the substance from the mixture and divide them in a mixture, . that diene synthesis is a unique means of determining the nature of specific types of substances'.,
. After receiving the Nobel Prize A
. continued to engage in teaching and research in the field of further potential applications of diene synthesis for industrial purposes. In 1955, Mr.. He joined the 17 other Nobel laureates, signed a declaration calling on all countries to condemn the war as an instrument of foreign policy. Scientist, highly devoted to his work, and. never married. In 1957. doctor diagnosed him: exhaustion, advised complete rest. A. died the following year, at age 55.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, A. was awarded the Medal of Emil Fischer Germanskogo Chemical Society (1938). He was awarded honorary degrees from the Medical Faculty of Cologne (1950) and Salamanca (1954) universities. A. was a member of Germanskoy Academy of Natural Scientists 'Leopoldina'.

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