BAYER (Baeyer), Adolf von( German chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1905)
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Biography BAYER (Baeyer), Adolf von
October 31, 1835, Mr.. - August 20, 1917
The German chemist Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer was born in Berlin. He was the eldest of five children of Johann Jakob Baeyer and Eugenie (Hittsig) Bayer. Father B. was an officer in the Prussian army, the author of published works on geography and refraction of light in the atmosphere, and the mother - the daughter of a famous lawyer and historian Julius Edward Hittsiga. The boy early developed an interest in chemistry and in the age of 12 he made his first discovery of chemical. This was a new double salt - copper carbonate and sodium. After graduating from high school of Friedrich Wilhelm, B. In 1853, Mr.. enrolled at Berlin University, where during the next two years studying mathematics and physics.
After a year of service in the army B. became a student at Heidelberg University, and began to study chemistry under the direction of Robert Bunsen, had recently invented a laboratory burner, and which was named in his honor. In Heidelberg B. focused on the physical chemistry. But after the publication in 1857. Articles hlormetane he was so engrossed in organic chemistry, that starting next year began working with engaged in structural chemistry Friedrich August Kekulц╘ von Stradonitz in his laboratory in Heidelberg. Here B. undertook the study of organic arsenic compounds, for which he was awarded a doctoral degree. Since 1858, Mr.. within two years he, together with Kekulц╘ von Stradonitz worked at Ghent University in Belgium, then returned to Berlin, where he lectured in chemistry at the Berlin Technical High School.
Under the influence of passion Kekulц╘ von Stradonitz structure of organic compounds B. Adolf von Baeyer first studied uric acid. and since 1865. - The structural composition of indigo, highly esteemed in the industry of blue dye, named after the plant from which it received. Even in 1841, Mr.. French chemist Auguste Laurent in studies of complex structure of the substance identified Isatin - water-soluble crystalline compound. Continuing experiments begun Laurent, B. in 1866. received the Isatin, using new technology recovery indigo by heating it with crushed zinc. The applied B. way to allow for more in-depth structural analysis than the process of oxidation, carried out by Laurent.
Analyzing the reverse process - getting indigo by oxidation Isatin, B. in 1870. the first time succeeded in synthesizing indigo, making thus possible its industrial production. Once in 1872. B. moved to Strasbourg and took the place of professor of chemistry at Strasbourg University, he began to study the reactions of condensation, in which water is released. During the condensation reaction of these groups of compounds, like aldehydes and phenols, he and his colleagues succeeded in isolating several important dyestuffs, pigments such as eosin, which he subsequently synthesized.
. In 1875, after the death of Justus von Liebig, B
. By this the successor to the well-known organic chemist, he was appointed professor of chemistry at the University of Munich. Here, for more than four decades he was the center of attraction for many gifted students. More than 50 of them later became university professors.
Returning to study the exact chemical structure of indigo, B. in 1883. announced the results of their research. This connection, he said, is composed of two related 'core' of the molecules (which he called indole). For 40 years, created B. model remained unchanged. It has been revised only with the advent of improved technology.
Study dyes led B. to the study of benzene hydrocarbon in a molecule which 6 carbon atoms form a ring. The nature of linkages between the carbon atoms and the location of hydrogen atoms within the molecular ring, there are many rival theories. BA, which in its warehouse was a chemist, an experimenter rather than a theorist, did not take any of the then existing theories, and put forward his own - the theory of 'stress'. In it the scientist claimed that due to the presence of other atoms in the molecule between carbon atoms are energized, and that this stress determines not only the shape of the molecule, but also the stability of the CE. Although this theory has now somewhat modernized interpretation, its essence, true grasped B., remained unchanged. Studies of benzene resulted in B. also to understand that the structure of the molecules of aromatic compounds benzene, called hydro-aromatic, is something between a circular formation and structure of the molecules of aliphatic hydrocarbons (without a ring). This made them the opening not only indicates the relationship between these three types of molecules, but also opens up new possibilities for their study.
In 1885, Mr.. day 50 years B. in recognition of his contribution to Germany, the scientist was granted the hereditary title, which gave the right to raise the particle 'von' before the name. In 1905, Mr.. B. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his merits in the development of organic chemistry and chemical industry due to the work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds'. Since that time, the scientist was sick and could not personally attend the award ceremony, he was represented by Ambassador Germanic. B. not delivered the Nobel lecture. But even in 1900, . Article, . devoted to the history of the synthesis of indigo, . He said: 'At last I have in the hands of the main substance for the synthesis of indigo, . and I feel the same joy, . what, . probably, . experienced Emil Fischer, . when after 15 years of purine synthesized the parent substance for uric acid '.,
. After becoming a Nobel laureate, B
. continued study of molecular structure. His work on oxygen compounds have led to discoveries relating tetravalence and basicity of oxygen. The scientist also studied the relationship between molecular structure and optical properties of substances, in particular color.
In 1868, Mr.. B. married Adelheid Bendeman. They had a daughter and two sons. Until his retirement B. continued to enthusiastically engage in research. He enjoyed the deep respect for his art of the experimenter and inquisitive mind. Despite the fact that the scientist received many lucrative offers from chemical firms, he refused to engage in industrial application of their discoveries, and did not receive any income from their work. 'B. had a representative and good-looking - remember him in the biographical sketch of Richard Willstatter. - His face bore the stamp of clarity, calmness and strength of mind, expressive blue eyes sparkled, and his eyes were piercing '. Died B. at his country house on Lake Starnberg, near Munich, August 20, 1917
Among the awards received by BA, included Davy Medal, awarded by the Royal Society. He was a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences and Germany Chemical Society.