Bergius (Bergius), Friedrich( German chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1931)
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Biography Bergius (Bergius), Friedrich
October 11, 1884, Mr.. - March 30, 1949
German chemist Friedrich Karl Rudolf Bergius was born in Goldshmidene (now Poland), the son of Henry and Mary (Haase) Bergius. Boys attend primary and secondary schools in nearby Breslau (now Polish g. Wroclaw). There he came to the chemical factory of his father and watched with great enthusiasm, industrial processes. After high school his father sent him to one of the largest metallurgical plants in the Ruhr, to that for the six months acquainted with proizvodtvom.
In 1903, Mr.. B. studied chemistry at the University of Breslau, engaging in Albert Ladenburg and Richard Abegg. The next year he spent in military service, and then entered the University of Leipzig, where, under the leadership of Arthur Gancia preparing a doctoral thesis on the subject of concentrated sulfuric acid as the solvent. Finished his thesis, B. in 1907. from the University of Breslau, a doctoral degree.
During the next two years B. worked as an assistant to Walter Nernst of the University of Berlin, and then at the Fritz Haber in Karlsruhe, where he studied methods of applying high-pressure synthesis of ammonia from hydrogen and atmospheric nitrogen. In 1909, Mr.. He explores the dissociation of calcium peroxide under pressure to 300 atmospheres in the physical-chemical laboratory of Ernest Bodenstein at the Technical University in Hanover. During this period, B. began to develop water-tight apparatus, which could create high pressure.
The scope of work B. quickly began to go beyond the opportunities available in the laboratory Bodenstein, and he means his family created a personal laboratory in Hanover. Here, his research focused on two themes - the transformation of heavy oils into lighter (and ultimately - in gasoline) and the influence of high pressure and high temperature on wood and peat in the formation of coal. In the course of this work B. convinced that the more viscous types of oil contain less hydrogen than in its lighter fractions. Therefore, if you add oil to hydrogen to compensate for its loss during cleaning (the cleaning process contained in the various oil molecules break down into simpler and lighter), it will increase output of gasoline. Applying this method, B. has increased yield of gasoline. Subsequently, he patented an open process of hydrogenation of oils under high pressure.
In the first years of XX century. through the use of internal combustion engines has increased the demand for oil. Past B. Research Education coal convince scientists that coal is present, hydrogen, and he inquired about the possibility of obtaining from that available in sufficient quantity of hydrocarbon fuel needed as a fuel. By the end of 1913. B. received a liquid hydrocarbon, acting on charcoal with hydrogen under pressure. His method was to supply gaseous hydrogen in a suspension of coal and tar at high temperatures and pressures over 50 atmospheres.
In 1915, Mr.. B. on their own resources and with financial support from two German companies, oil refineries built in the Rheinau, near Mannheim, a plant with a view to the speedy establishment of large-scale process of hydrogenation of coal. However, after the First World War, demand for oil is temporarily reduced, and the project B. dragged. Only in 1921. It raised additional funds by selling its right to a patent Germanic companies and industrial associations in other countries.
In Rheinau B. and his associates have developed an industrial apparatus for the process of hydrogenation of coal. Gases, liquids and solids injected into the vessel, where they are mixed and heated, and under extremely high pressure reacted. Until that time, the equipment for the success of the reactions under high pressure in the industry was geared only for reactions with gaseous substances.
Between 1922 and 1925. B. has developed the continuity of the process, the ability to control the temperature during the reaction, and opened an effective source of hydrogen by burning a mixture of methane and oxygen. However, despite these and other achievements, he created a process never has been made possible from an economic point of view. Once in 1925. B. sold their patents 'Baden Aniline and Soda Factory' (BASF), a large chemical company in Germany, his work continued Carl Bosch. BASF has successfully completed the industry proposed by the Haber synthesis of ammonia and high-hydrogenating carbon monoxide to produce methanol. In January 1925. BASF has developed resistant to sulfur molybdenum catalyst that facilitates the process of hydrogenation of coal and increases its effectiveness.
Later in 1925. BASF and six other Germanic chemical companies merged to form Concern 'IG. Farben '. The new association went well developed process of hydrogenation. In 1926, Mr.. Mathias Pierus, a former student of Nernst, who led the BASF research activities, improved the process B. and obtained increasing output of gasoline. Two years later, 'IG. Farben 'built in Lane plant oils from coal.
In 1931, Mr.. B. Bosch and was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for his services on the introduction and development of high-pressure techniques in chemistry'. Introducing the winners on behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, KV. Palmayer spoke about the difficulties of a technical nature, which had to overcome B. in the improvement of technology for reactions under high pressure. He added that 'the introduction of high-pressure techniques in chemistry represents a milestone in the field of chemical technology. "
At the time of receipt of the Nobel Prize B. began studying the process of hydrolysis of cellulose - the main component of wood - by using highly concentrated hydrochloric acid. As a result of this process, which is jokingly dubbed the 'receiving food from a tree', formed sugar, which in turn could turn into alcohol or nutritional yeast. In the 30 th and 40 th years. B. continued study of hydrolysis of wood and in 1943. built an industrial plant in Rheinau. Both of these processes - hydrogenation of coal and the conversion of cellulose - provided Germany during the Second World War vital resources.
After the war, B. not find suitable jobs at home and at first he briefly lived in Austria and then moved to Spain, where he founded a chemical company. In 1947, Mr.. at the invitation of the Government of Argentina, he moved to live in this country and worked as a research consultant at the Ministry of Industry.
B. was married to Otilia Krazert. They had two sons and a daughter. B. died in Buenos Aires in 1949
In addition to the Nobel Prize, the scientist has been awarded several prizes, t.ch. prestigious medal Liebig Germanskogo Chemical Society. He was also awarded honorary degrees from Heidelberg and the University of Hannover.