Butenandt (Butenandt), Adolph( German biochemist and physiologist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1939)
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Biography Butenandt (Butenandt), Adolph
genus. March 24, 1903
German biochemist and physiologist Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt was born in Bremerhaven-Lee, the son of a businessman Otto Butenandt and Wilhelmina (Tomptord) Butenandt. After graduating from high school in Bremerhaven, he in 1921. enrolled in the University of Marburg, where he began to study chemistry and biology. B. continued his studies at the University of GцІttingen Adolf Windaus.
. One of lectures on the biochemistry of cholesterol, read Windaus in 1924, dealt with various ways to use the basic molecules of cholesterol in numerous biological specimens to different animals
. Observations Windaus had a decisive influence on the BA, who later recalled: "And the form and content of the lecture ... answered my own, hitherto in vain the wanted path of scientific inquiry - at the border of chemistry and biology '. Having written a dissertation on the chemistry rotsnona, compounds used in insecticides, B. in 1927. received the University of GцІttingen doctorate in chemistry and became an assistant at the University Institute of Chemistry.
. Around the same time the head of the research department of chemical and pharmaceutical firms 'Schering Corp.' Walter Schoeller Windaus turned to for help in conducting studies of the chemical structure of female sex hormones,
. Windaus advised him to undertake this work B. "Schering Corp. 'provided the B. concentrated extracts of biologically active hormonal substances obtained from the urine of pregnant women. From this substance B. identified in 1929. female sex hormone in pure crystalline form. Since it was synthesized and isolated cells, which fill the ovarian follicles, B. called this substance folliculin. Later renamed to estrone, the hormone is estrogen, which defines the different physical characteristics of women, stimulates the development of female genital. Around the same time, regardless of B. American biochemist Edward A. Doisy synthesized estrone in crystalline form. In 1931, Mr.. B. and his colleagues confirmed the discovery of a second female sex hormone - estrogen - made in London G.F. Merrianom. It was called estriol.
Then B. addressed the problem of isolation and chemical identification of special male sex hormone, synthesized and isolated in experiments with the cells of Leydig. In 1931, Mr.. B. and his colleagues isolated this hormone in pure crystalline form and named it androsterone. Later it was proved that he is biochemically linked to the main male sex hormone - testosterone.
In 1931, Mr.. B. He was appointed privat-docent (visiting professor) at the Department of Biological Chemistry, performing simultaneously Charge of the Laboratory of Inorganic and Organic Chemistry at the University of GцІttingen. Two years later he was appointed professor of chemistry and director of the Institute of Organic Chemistry at the Danzig Institute of Technology, where he worked for three years.
Having isolated and purified estrogen and androsterone, B. took the analysis of the exact chemical structure of the estrogenic hormones estrone and estriol. Earlier crystallographic analysis by X-rays gave reason to assume the existence of structural relationship between estrone, . estriol and sterols, . which are complex organic alcohols, . containing four planar ring (for example, can serve as cholesterol),
. In 1932, Mr.. B. and his colleagues have shown using spectrographic and chemical analysis, that the biological activity of estrone and estriol depends on the double carbon bonds in the cyclic structure of the sterol molecule. Analyzing the chemical structure of estrone and estriol, they came to the conclusion that the core of each hormone is a phenanthrene ring containing 2 methyl groups. This discovery is of particular importance because this way it was shown that female sex hormones and sterols (especially cholesterol and bile acids) are chemically closely related. Later it was found that cholesterol is a biochemical substance of the original male and female sex hormones.
In 1934, Mr.. B. and his colleagues were in a crystalline form of progesterone - the hormone that prepares the contents of the uterus to implantation of a fertilized egg. They have shown that progesterone and its derivative pregnandiol obtained from the urine of pregnant women are closely linked. Five years later, B. Progesterone is synthesized from its original substance cholesterol.
B. and his colleagues have helped to understand and structure of androsterone, finding that it contains 1 carbon atom more than estrogens, and 8 atoms of hydrogen more than estrone. They also found that, like estrogens, androsterone is a sterol, consisting of 4 rings, but with an additional methyl group and 5 additional hydrogen atoms, which are projected from the nucleus of sterol. The main male sex hormone - testosterone - was isolated from tissue samples experienced by other researchers. In 1935. B. and Leopold Ruzicka independently synthesized testosterone from his predecessor's biochemical. B. also discovered a biochemical path interconversion of male and female sex hormones, which in chemical terms is due to their sterinovym kernel. These two researchers found that the male sex hormone activity is determined by a double bond between the 4 th and 5 th carbon atoms in the rings consisting of 4 sterinovom nucleus. If this double bond is observed between 1 st and 2 nd carbon atoms, then a female estrogenic effect of the molecule. The discovery of these chemical-specific biological activity of the parties was one of the most important aspects of the ongoing B. Studies of sex hormones of mammals.
In 1936, Mr.. Max Planck, the president of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society - an organization that controlled all the scientific studies conducted in Germany - offered B. become director of the Institute of Biochemistry, Kaiser Wilhelm (now Max Planck) in Berlin.
In 1939, Mr.. B. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for his work on sex hormones'. He shared the prize with Leopold Ruzicka. At this time the Second World War, and B. received the prize in Stockholm, only in 1949. During the war, the scientist continued to work at the Institute of Biochemistry in Berlin, where together with the zoologist Alfred Kuhn studied the problem of the genetic regulation of the biosynthesis of eye pigment of insects. They managed to prove that specific genes are 'responsible' for the synthesis of specific enzymes that are catalysts for the formation of eye pigments from the amino acid tryptophan. Eye pigments, called ommohromami amounted to a new class of biological compounds. Later it was proved the presence of natural pigments in many animals. A study B. study hypothesis 'one gene - one enzyme' coincided with the research conducted by American scientists, George Y. Beadle and Edward L. Teytemom.
After the war, Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Biochemistry, moved to Tц?bingen and B. there was appointed professor of physiological chemistry. In 1953, Mr.. together with his colleague Peter Carlson he first identified in the crystalline form of the insect hormone. Named ecdysone, this substance stimulates the formation of caterpillar chrysalis. Carlson later demonstrated that ecdysone is a derivative of cholesterol and is in the chemical affinity with sex hormones of mammals.
Relocation of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biochemistry in Munich in 1956. B. was appointed professor of physiological chemistry, University of Munich. Here he received bombikol, a substance belonging to a new class of biological compounds called pheromones, and set its nature. Allocated a female silkworm moth, bombikol has a biological function of attracting a mate.
From 1960 to 1972. B. was president of the Max Planck Society. After retirement from the University of Munich in 1971. scientist was awarded the title of honorary professor emeritus.
In 1931, Mr.. B. married Eric von Zigner. Butenandt spouses and their children (two sons and five daughters) live in Munich.
Among the many awards received by BA, are Grand Cross of the Order "For federal service 'of the Government of Germany (1959) and the French Legion of Honor (1969). In 1973, Mr.. Max Planck Society awarded a medal scholar Adolf von Harnack. B. - Holds honorary degrees from universities in Graz, Leeds, Munich, Madrid and Tц?bingen, as well as an honorary member of the New York Academy of Sciences. Japanese Biochemical Society, Australian Academy of Sciences and France, Royal Society of London