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Haber (Haber), Fritz

( German chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1918)

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Biography Haber (Haber), Fritz
December 9, 1868, Mr.. - 29 January 1934
The German chemist Fritz Haber was born in g. Breslau (now z. Wroclaw, Poland) and was the only son of Siegfried Haber and his first wife, his cousin Paula Gaber, who died in childbirth. When the boy was nine years old, his father, a prosperous merchant dyes, married Hedwig Hamburger, from which had three daughters. If the father was stern and cold towards his son, then with my stepmother at the G. have developed warm relations after the end of the local primary school r. enrolled in school Breslavskiy St.. Elizabeth, where he was born a love for literature, especially the works of Goethe. As a boy he liked to write poetry, and he cherished the hope of becoming an actor, but in the end chemistry captured the whole thing.
In 1886. G. entered Berlin University to study chemistry, but after the first semester, moved to Heidelberg University, where his teacher was Robert Bunsen - inventor of the laboratory burner that bears his name. Bunsen's interest in physical chemistry pushed Mr.. to study mathematics and physics - subjects which he continued he studied at Berlin Technical University. After receiving his doctorate in 1891. He mainly worked in the chemical applications laboratories, which do not promote a particular interest in the theory. Then he moved to the Zurich Federal Institute of Technology, where he got acquainted with new chemical and industrial processes, which subsequently brought the leaders of Germany in the world of chemical technology.
. After working for two years with his father Mr.
. continued his studies, first in Jena, then at the University of Karlsruhe, where in 1894. became assistant to Hans Bunte, professor of chemical engineering. Job G., . results were summarized in 1896 in his book 'Experimental studies on the decomposition and combustion of hydrocarbons' ( "Expenmentelle Untersu-chungen uber Zersetzung und Verbrennung von Kohlenwasserstoffen"), . allowed him to be in the same year as a lecturer at the University of Karlsruhe,
. In 1906, Mr.. he was awarded the title of professor of physical chemistry and electrochemistry, and chose the director of the university institute, which conducted research on these subjects.
In the first studies of Karlsruhe D. involving a wide variety of issues including the electrochemistry of fuel, loss of heat in a steam engine, the creation of several types of electrodes for recording of redox processes. He described the results of this work in the book 'Basic principles of electrochemistry technology based on the theory' ( "Grundnss der technischen Electrochemie auf theoretischer Grundlage", 1898). His third book "Thermodynamics of reactions of industrial gases' (" Thermodynamics of Technical Gas Reactions "), published in 1905, did Mr.. world authority in the field of science and technology. In the book he showed how the theoretical thermodynamic calculations of changes of free energy of gases at equilibrium can be practically used for industrial purposes.
The most significant laboratory experiments G. began in 1905 when it took over the production of ammonia in order to make it further into nitrate. Acute problem in the world due to population increase and the reduction of natural sources of fertilizer grew obtaining fertilizer, nitrogen enrichment. G. tried to combine atmospheric nitrogen with hydrogen to produce ammonia. Other chemists have tried to synthesize ammonia by direct reaction between its components of nitrogen and hydrogen, but this method required raising the temperature to 1000 б° C, which was disadvantageous for economic reasons. After a series of experiments, T. realized that ammonia can be synthesized at temperatures below 300 б° C.
German chemist Walther Nernst previously demonstrated that ammonia can be obtained by the interaction of hydrogen and nitrogen at extremely high pressures. G. combined techniques of low temperatures and high pressures. He also found that the replacement of the standard catalyst, which is iron, osmium and uranium to significantly increase the yield of ammonia. Later, he even increased the efficiency of the same method by utilizing heat generated by the interaction of gases to maintain the reaction temperature.
Research G. on the synthesis of ammonia funded Germanic industrial corporation 'Badishe Aniline und Soda Factories' (BASF). Carl Bosch, an engineer company BASF, perfected the method of G. and introduced it to the factories Corporation for ammonia production in the OPPA and Leung in 1910. Named Haber Bosch process, he so far is the basis of large-scale production of ammonia in the world.
The following year, Mr.. and Richard Willstatter were appointed co-director of the Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry of Kaiser Wilhelm in Berlin after the First World War in 1914. G. in the service of germanskogo Government. As consultant to the War Ministry of Germany, he was instructed to establish irritant, which would have forced the enemy troops to leave the trenches. A few months later Mr.. and his staff have created weapons using chlorine gas, which was put into production in January 1915. It was used the same spring against the troops of the Entente of Ypres in Belgium, which led to the poisoning of 150000 people.
Although Mr.. hated war, he believed that the use of chemical weapons could save many lives, if it stops exhausting trench warfare on the Western Front. His wife Clara (nee Immervar) was also a chemist and strongly opposed its military operations. In 1915, Mr.. after a serious quarrel with Mr.. she committed suicide. They married in 1901, they had one son. In 1917, Mr.. G. married Charlotte Nathan, they had a son and a daughter in 1927. they divorced.
In 1916, Mr.. G. was appointed Chief of Chemical Service, responsible for all research and production of chemical weapons Nitrogen-fixing process, developed by Mr.. for the production of artificial fertilizers, was to serve military purposes in Germany primarily for manufacture of explosives.
Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918. been reserved, but next year the prize was awarded to Mr.. 'for the synthesis of ammonia from its constituent elements'. 'Discovery AG, said in his speech at the presentation A.G. Ekstrand, a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences - would be extremely important for agriculture and the prosperity of mankind '. Awards sparked strong criticism from scholars of the Entente countries, which saw Mr.. as a war criminal, who participated in the production of chemical weapons.
The defeat of Germany, the suicide of his first wife, the conviction of Mr.. British, American and French scientists led him to severe depression in addition, he developed diabetes insipidus. Despite this, he has reorganized the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin, under stringent restrictions characteristic of the post-war Germany. In 1920, Mr.. He began research on the extraction of gold from sea water, hoping that if successful this venture will enable Germany to pay reparations to the countries of the Entente. However, after six years of the project, relying on too-optimistic assessment of the XIX century. content of gold in sea water, ended in failure.
At the same time Mr.. the institute led to significant advances in the field of atomic physics, biology and chemistry. Scientific colloquium, organized by GM, visited the most eminent scientists of the time, including Niels Bohr, Otto Warburg, Otto Meyerhof, Peter Debye, and many others. In the early 30-ies Institute became one of the most renowned research centers and educational institutions in the world.
In 1933, after Hitler came to power, the position of Mr.. become dangerous, because his parents were not Jewish by religion, and origin. One of the first acts of the Nazi government was the enactment of laws of the Civil Code does not allow Jews served in academic and government institutions. Since T. Germany was at the service during the First World War, . for it made an exception, . but in April the same year he refused to fire from his state of the Jews and sent a letter with a statement of resignation to the Ministry of Art, . science and education,
. 'For more than 40 years of service, I picked up his staff for their intellectual development and character, rather than on the origin of their grandparents - wrote it, and I do not want the last years of my life to change that principle. "
. After fleeing from the Nazis in England, Mr.
. worked for four months with his former assistant William Pope at Cambridge University. Then the chemist and the future first president of Israel Chaim Weizmann invited Mr.. work in the Palestinian Research Institute in Rehovot, Daniel Siff. Health D. deteriorated. He suffered a heart attack, but recovered and went on the invitation in January 1934. During a stopover to rest in Basel (Switzerland), he died. His friend Willstatter speech at the funeral. A year later, the first anniversary of his death, more than 500 of his former students and colleagues ignored the Nazi threat and gathered at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, to pay tribute to the life and work of G.

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