Grignard (Grignard), Victor( French chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1912)
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Biography Grignard (Grignard), Victor
May 6, 1871, Mr.. - December 13, 1935
French chemist Franцїois Auguste Victor Grignard was born in g. Cherbourg family Theophilus Henry Grignard and Marie (nee Hebert) Grignard. His father sewed sails, later became master of the local marine armory. The boy went to Cherbourg high school and early displayed exceptional intellect. Getting a scholarship at the end of the school allowed him to study mathematics at the Ecole normal in spesiel Clooney. When the school two years later was closed, he moved to the University of Lyon, who graduated in 1892. After the failure in the delivery of licensing examinations, which would allow him to teach in high school, Mr.. enrolled in the army for military service.
In the next year after demobilization G. returned to Lyon and exams. At the same time, his friend and classmate at school in Clooney developed by Mr.. interest in chemistry, and in 1894. G. he became an assistant chemistry department at the University of. Quickly demonstrating his abilities in this area, Mr.. in 1898. received a master's degree in physical sciences, in the same year he became a senior demonstrator Philippe Antoine Barbier, head of the Faculty of the University of Lyon.
. Barbier began to explore the method, . in which the metal was used for the transport of the organic radical from one molecule to the other compounds, . which were obtained after the accession of the metal to one or more organic radicals (groups of atoms, . who remain uncharged in the reactions), . were called organometallic compounds,
. At that time it was known that the only organometallic compounds, which are effectively carrying the agents - are organic compounds of zinc. This process, however, was laborious and the results were not stable (reproducible).
. A few years before several German chemists replaced the zinc, magnesium, but were unstable compounds with low yield, most of which were insoluble in inert solvents
. Although magnesium from a practical point of view was not suitable as a transporting agent, Barbie decided to use it, approaching the problem from the other side. Rather than get organomagnesium compounds, as did the German experimenters, he just took two of organic matter and had a reaction in the presence of magnesium, and in this version of the reaction was. Nevertheless, these results were contradictory, and Barbier threw the problem, though offering her T. as a topic for the dissertation.
G. knew that in the XIX century English chemist Edward Frenkland and James Uonklin received tsinkorganicheskie compounds during heating of organic compounds with the metal in the presence of anhydrous ether. Knowing that the more magnesium reacts readily than zinc, D. suggested that the reaction of such Mg should enter more actively. This assumption has been proved, and he used this method to obtain various organometallic compounds, some of which have been obtained for the first time.
In 1900, Mr.. G. published the results of their research, for which he is in the following year was awarded a doctoral degree. Grignard reaction - top of his scientific career, it is used in many experiments in organic chemistry. Using the reaction named after him, other researchers have been able to effectively and simply synthesize a wide range of organic compounds
In 1905, Mr.. G. became a lecturer at the rate of chemistry at the University of Besanцїon, located near Dijon, but next year he returned to Lyon for the post of Research Assistant Barbier. In 1908, Mr.. he was promoted to Associate Professor. A year later he moved to Nansiysky University, where in 1910. became a professor of organic chemistry.
In 1912, Mr.. G. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, in recent years has contributed significantly to the development of organic chemistry'. He shared the prize with Paul Sabatier. In his speech at the presentation of the winners of a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences X. G. Sederbaum thanked Mr.. for 'expanding the frontiers of knowledge, ability to observations' and for 'opening up prospects for new advances in science'.
When in 1914. France entered the war, Mr.. was called a corporal in the service and sent to Normandy. He served for a short time, carrying guard duty, then was recalled for the development of methods for explosive toluene. In 1917, Mr.. during work on the problem of chemical weapons, he visited America to coordinate the efforts of France and the United States in this direction. During his visit he gave several lectures in Mellonovskom Institute (now Carnegie Mellon University) interrelationships of science and industry.
In 1919, Mr.. G. was discharged from military service. After working for several months in Nansiyskom University, he was replaced by Barbier, a professor of chemistry at the University of Lyon, where he remained until the end of his scientific activity. In 1921, Mr.. He became the director of the Lyon School of Chemical Engineering, and in 1929,. Dean of the Faculty of Science of the school.
In Lyon, besides working with organomagnesium compounds, G. explored a wide range of problems, including condensation of aldehydes and ketones, cracking hydrocarbons, catalytic hydrogenation and dehydrogenation at reduced pressure. In recent years, administrative duties, played them not by his will, greatly limiting its research activities.
In 1919, Mr.. G. Augustine married Mary Bulan, they had a daughter and a son, also became a chemist. Targeted and versatile scholar, Mr.. was also highly valued teacher. After a severe illness he died on Dec. 13, 1935, Mr.. Lyon.
Among the many awards Mr.. were medal Berthelot (1902), Prize Zhekkera (1905) of the French Academy of Sciences and the Lavoisier Medal of the French Chemical Society (1912). He was conferred the title of Commander of the Legion of Honor and an honorary degree from University of Brussels and Leuven. He was a member of many chemical companies, including the Society of Britain, the United States, Belgium, France, Romania, Poland, the Netherlands and Sweden.