Zsigmondy (Zsigmondy), Richard( German chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1925)
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Biography Zsigmondy (Zsigmondy), Richard
April 1, 1865, Mr.. - September 23, 1929
German chemist Richard Adolf Zsigmondy (Zhigmondi) was born in Austria, in Vienna, the son of Irma (von Zakmari) and Adolf Zsigmondy, who had four children. His father, a successful physician, who published several works on medicine, encouraged the boy manifested interest in science. Thanks mother SW. learned to love nature and art. He is fond of swimming, climbing mountains, and in addition, be happy to read books on chemistry and conducted experiments in his small home laboratories.
W. studied chemistry at Vienna University and the Technical University in Vienna and then in 1887, Mr.. enrolled in the University of Munich. Three years later he received his doctorate in organic chemistry and began working in the University of Munich as an assistant. In 1893, Mr.. Z. began to lecture on chemical engineering at the Technical University in Graz (Austria). Here he became interested in issues of color glass and porcelain, and this interest led him to study colloid chemistry. Working as a chemical engineer in the 'Schott Glass manufakturing Company' in Jena (Germany) from 1897 to 1900, he developed the technology Jena 'milk' glass. In 1900, Mr.. Z. left this work and for the next seven years (with the financial support of their families) engaged in a purely scientific work, studying colloidal systems. He continued his studies and once in 1907. became a professor at the University of Gottingen, and later director of the University Institute of Inorganic Chemistry.
Colloidal systems are those in which tiny particles are stably distributed in a liquid medium. An example of such a system in our daily lives is the egg white. The particles in colloidal systems can give them some special characteristics, such as color effects powdered gold in the glass, which studied the H. In the late XIX - early XX century. nature of colloidal systems was not completely clear. Z. believed that the action of substances, coloring glass, called a well-dispersed chemically inert particles are so tiny that they can not discern in the then existing microscopes. Thus, the visual evidence of the existence of such particles were absent, and do colloidal solutions were stable and did not give draft, as might be expected when a mixture of particles in a liquid medium.
W. developed a range of hybrid technologies in order to determine the nature of colloidal systems. According to one of these technologies, he added in a liquid medium, reagents, trying to achieve coagulation of colloids and thus learn a lot about this transition state. However, his main aim was to see the particles themselves, and in 1903. he, together with physicist G.F.V. Zidentopfom who worked at tseysovskih optical factory in Jena, designs ultramicroscope.
. Rather than illuminate the sample along the optical axis, as is done in standard microscopes, in ultramicroscope applied perpendicular to the light
. This system is like a daily occurrence, which arise in the air, tiny particles of dust can be seen in a ray of sunlight, when you look at it from. Optimizing the technology of what is called dark-field illumination, W. and engineers with tseysovskih plants were able to solve this problem for the tiny particle size of 10 nanometers (10 millionths of a millimeter). Further improvements led to the creation of so-called immersion ultramicroscope, in which the particle size are visible at 4 nanometers. With the help W. studied the behavior of glass colors and found that certain changes color due to the coagulation of colloidal particles.
In these studies, H. studied the dynamics of colloidal systems. Knowing that the gold particles in a colloidal solution of negatively charged, it is suggested that the results from the mutual repulsion between equally charged particles is the cause of their stability. When you add in a colloidal solution of salt formed centers of electrical attraction, around which there is an aggregation of gold for as long as the particles do not precipitate from a colloidal suspension. With the help of theoretical physicist Marian Smoluchowski W. calculated at some distance from each other should be in a colloidal solution of gold particles that occurred aggregation.
In 1925, Mr.. Z. Nobelevckaya was awarded the Prize in Chemistry 'for the establishment of the heterogeneous nature of colloidal solutions and for the developed in this regard, methods of fundamental importance in modern colloid chemistry'. In his opening speech on behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences X.G. Sederbaum stressed that "all manifestations of organic life, ultimately linked to the colloidal environment protoplasm '.
In the future, continuing to work at the University of GцTttingen, W. conducted the research with the help of ultrafilters. This technology has proved in the study of many substances, including the gel structures. Scientist resigned in 1919
In 1903, Mr.. Z. married Laura Louise Muller, the daughter of a teacher of physiology University of Jena. In the couple had two daughters. Z. and his wife liked to spend free time on his estate, in the Tyrol, where the scientist rest surrounded by nature, enjoying walks in the mountains. Z. died in Gottingen, September 23, 1929