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LELUAR (Leloir), Luis F.

( Argentine biochemist Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1970)

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Biography LELUAR (Leloir), Luis F.
September 6, 1906, Mr.. - December 2, 1987
Argentine biochemist Luis Federico Leluar was born in Paris, where his parents, Federico Leluar and Hortensio (Aguirre) Leluar, to travel to France. The boy is two years old, and the family Leluarov returned to Buenos Aires, where Louis later attended primary and secondary schools. After university in Buenos Aires, A. in 1932. received a medical degree. He then worked for two years at the university hospital, . however, . feeling dissatisfied because of the limited opportunities available if medical treatment, . began work at the University Institute of Physiology, led by Bernardo Houssay of studying the role of adrenal glands in the metabolism of carbohydrates.,
. Since L
. more interested in biochemistry, he was in 1936. went to England in the biochemical laboratory at Cambridge University - a major research center, headed by Frederick Goulendom Hopkins. After studying a year of biochemistry enzymes L. returned to the Institute of Physiology in Buenos Aires, where he was involved in the metabolism of ethanol and the oxidation of fatty acids in cell-free liver extract. This study was unusual because at that time it was believed that this process requires intact cellular structures. Then L. joined a group of scientists who studied the role of the kidney in regulating blood pressure. This work resulted in a angiotensin peptide (which can split renin, an enzyme produced by the kidney) from angiotensinogen produced by the liver protein.
After strengthening the political influence of Juan Peron in 1943. Argentina Houssay was dismissed, and his research group disbanded. Leaving the United States, L. worked as an assistant researcher in the biochemical laboratory of Charles V. Cori at Washington University in St. Louis (Missouri), and then under the leadership of David E. Green College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University in New York. When he returned two years later, in Argentina, A. conducted research at the Institute of Biology and Experimental Medicine, a private institute, works in Buenos Aires under the leadership of Houssay. Thanks to financial support Kampomara Jaime, the owner of the textile company, in 1947. Institute was created biochemical research, whose director was L.
The initial task of scientific research conducted in this institute, was the synthesis of milk sugar (lactose). At that time, biochemists have known that what is happening in vivo process of dissolution of carbohydrates (polysaccharides and starch) into simpler sugars is a source of energy needed for life. Much less, however, was aware of how these complex organic molecules are synthesized by living systems.
In search of the enzyme for catalysis of the reversible synthesis of lactose L. and his colleagues found that this process requires two unstable to heating coenzymes, which he identified as glucose-1, 6-diphosphate and nucleoside uridindifosfatglyukoza. It later said L. 'presence as a coenzyme uridine was one of its kind innovation, as in other compounds ... met nucleoside adenine. Appearance of derivatives of sugars in combination with nucleoside was also a new factor. "
L. and his aides guessed that uridindifosfatglyukoza must have other functions in addition to acting as a coenzyme in the metabolism of galactose. Indeed, they found that uridindifosfatglyukoza is also a donor of glucose in the formation of disaccharides and tregalozfosfata saharozofosfata. Employees from different laboratories soon discovered many other sugar nucleotides, and showed them the two main functions: firstly, . they participate in the process of interconversion of simple sugars and, . secondly, . act as donors in the reactions convert glucose, . leading to the synthesis of н¦1-and polysaccharides,
. In 1959, after the L. and his colleagues found, . that the glycogen (the main reserve carbohydrate of human and animal) is formed from uridindifosfatglyukozy, . They analyzed the synthesis of starch in plants and have proved, . that participates in this process, the sugar nucleotide is adenozindifosfatglyukozu.,
. When in 1955
. Peron's dictatorship was overthrown, the new government has provided the Institute of Biochemical studies larger premises. In 1962. Institute was attached to the University of Buenos Aires as its branches, and A. appointed head of the biochemical separation. From this administrative position, he subsequently refused to spend more time in the laboratory.
In 1970. L. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for his discovery of the first sugar nucleotide and study its function in the conversion of sugar and in the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates'. 'L. found that the reaction does not occur in the transformation of sugar as such - said Carl Mirbak, introducing L. on behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences - as in the corresponding sugar nucleotides'. 'Other scientists quickly recognized the fundamental importance of the opening of LA - he went. - To date, known and described in detail over hundreds of sugar nucleotides, whose participation in various reactions is crucial '. After receiving the Nobel Prize L. became a national hero of Argentina, was even released a postage stamp with his portrait.
Continuing to conduct biochemical studies, L. In recent years, studied the role of lipids - a chemical intermediate in the synthesis of polysaccharides from sugar nucleotides, . as well as participation dolihola (substances polyisoprene) in the synthesis of glycoproteins, . which are components of biological membranes and immunological substances of blood groups.,
. L., of which his students and colleagues spoke as a man attentive and compassionate, famous for its ability to conduct important scientific research with limited financial capacity
. In 1943, Mr.. L. married Amelia Zuherbuhler. In the couple had a daughter. The scientist and his wife lived in Buenos Aires, here L. died Dec. 2, 1987
L. participated actively in the work of the Argentine Society of biochemical studies and the Pan American Association of Biochemical Societies. He was awarded prizes and honorary degrees from universities in various countries. The scientist was a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, the Pontifical Academy of Sciences and the London Royal Academy.

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LELUAR (Leloir), Luis F., photo, biography
LELUAR (Leloir), Luis F., photo, biography LELUAR (Leloir), Luis F.  Argentine biochemist Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1970, photo, biography
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