NORRISH (Norrish), Ronald( English chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1967)
Comments for NORRISH (Norrish), Ronald
Biography NORRISH (Norrish), Ronald
November 9, 1897, Mr.. - June 7, 1978
English chemist Ronald George Raeford Norrish was born in Cambridge, the son of a pharmacist Herbert Norrisha and Ann Norrish. He graduated from the local primary and secondary schools persskuyu. In 1915, having received a scholarship to study at Emmanuel College, Cambridge University, H. began to study natural sciences. The following year he was drafted into the army. He fought in the Royal Field Artillery in France and in 1918. was captured by Germanic troops. During the year N. was taken prisoner, and then returned to Emmanuel College, where, having completed a university course, got a degree in chemistry in 1921. In 1924, Mr.. he was awarded a doctoral degree in chemistry, and in 1925. He became a scholar of Emmanuel College, and chemical-demonstrator. In 1930. N. lectured on physical chemistry at Cambridge University, and in 1937. was appointed professor of physical chemistry and director of the department of physical chemistry - a position he held until the resignation in 1965
Doctorate H. Concerning the impact of light on the chemistry of solutions of potassium permanganate. He was one of the first to do research in the field of photochemistry. N. found, . nitrogen peroxide, . ketones, . aldehydes, . keteny and diazomethane under the influence of short-wave light decomposed into stable and unstable molecules, . produces highly reactive free radicals (atoms or molecules with at least one unpaired electron),
. The emergence of free radicals are much more likely when the reaction takes place in a rarefied gas, but not in the liquid phase, where the particle concentration is relatively high and free radicals can react with each other. N. studied the effect of light on these molecules, as well as the light emitted during chemical reactions.
Investigating the process of combustion of methane and ethylene, H. found that formaldehyde is an intermediate compound, which reacts to the ultraviolet rays of the explosion. He also found that in many photochemical processes occurring chain reactions, which occur under the influence of light reactive intermediates. In these processes, the catalytic action of a small amount of light produces a strong chemical effect. Discovering that the reactive intermediates that arise under the action of light, leading to polymerization (combining many small molecules with the formation of large), H. conducted extensive research into the kinetics of polymerization in numerous chemical systems.
When during the Second World War H. was chairman of the governmental Committee on fighting incendiary rounds, and he conducted research related to the suppression of gun-fire.
After the war, H. and one of his former student George Porter undertook a study of chemistry of ultrafast chemical reactions. Using powerful short pulses of light, they cause the dissociation of unstable molecules into free radicals. To monitor the behavior of these highly reactive substances they used a second, weaker pulse spectroscopic. This method allowed them to establish the presence of numerous intermediate compounds, as well as to observe the mechanism of many complex reactions. Application of this method, called flash photolysis, for the first time to directly study the fast transient response, which were theoretically predicted, but which no one before them did not observe. N. and Porter continued their work, taking up the study of combustion and pyrolysis of hydrogen, hydrocarbons, ammonia, hydrogen phosphide and hydrogen sulphide.
In 1967. N. and Porter was awarded half the Nobel Prize in Chemistry ', for their study of ultrafast chemical reactions with the displacement of the molecular equilibrium very short pulse'. The second half of the prize was awarded to Manfred Eigen for a similar job. In his opening speech on behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences X. A. Olander noted that 'the method developed by H. and Porter, allowed them to explore many of the rapid reaction ', whose existence is only surmise. Until very recently, continued Olander, 'the study of these unstable, with high-energy molecules and their chemical properties could hardly be even imagined. "
In 1926, Mr.. N. married Anna Smith, a lecturer in the Faculty of Education University Uelsskogo. They had two daughters, twins. Colleagues spoke of the H. as an enthusiast, a man of enormous energy and constantly unsatisfied curiosity. Died scientist in 1978. in Cambridge at the age of 80 years.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, H. was awarded the Meldola Medal of the Chemical Institute (1928), . Davy Medal of the Royal Society of London (1958), . medals Liversidzha (1958) and Faraday (1964) British Society of Chemistry, . Gold Medal Lewis Institute for the Study of combustion processes (1964) and the Medal Longstaffa British Chemical Society (1968),
. He was a member of the Royal Society of London and eight foreign academies of sciences. In 1953 ... 1955. N. was president of the Faraday Society, and in 1961,. - British Association for the Advancement of Science. The scientist was also the holder of honorary degrees from universities of Lancaster, Leeds, Liverpool, Paris, Sheffield and British Columbia.