Linus Pauling( The American chemist, Nobel Peace Prize, 1962)
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Biography Linus Pauling
February 28, 1901, Mr.. - August 19, 1994
American chemist Linus Carl Pauling (Pauling) was born in Portland (Oregon), in the family Luce Ayzabell (Darling) Pauling and Herman Henry William Pauling, a pharmacist. Poling Sr. died when his son was 9 years old. P. childhood fascinated by science. Initially, he collected insects and minerals. At the age of 13, one of the friends of P. join it to chemistry, and the future scientist began to experiment. He did it at home, and dishes for experiments, he took his mother in the kitchen. P. attended Washington High School in Portland, but have not received a matriculation certificate. Nevertheless, he enlisted in the Oregon State Agricultural College (later became Oregon State University) in Corvallis, where he studied mainly chemical engineering, chemistry and physics. To support the material himself and his mother, he worked part time washing dishes and sorting of paper. When P. studied on the penultimate course, it as an unusually gifted student took a job as an assistant to the chair of quantitative analysis. In the last year he became assistant in chemistry, mechanics and materials. Received in 1922. Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering, P. started preparing a doctoral thesis in chemistry at Caltech in Pasadena.
P. was the first at the California Institute of Technology, who at the end of this higher education institution immediately began working as an assistant and then lecturer at the Department of Chemistry. In 1925, Mr.. he was awarded a doctoral degree in chemistry summa cum laude (with highest praise. - Lat.). During the next two years he worked as a researcher and a member of the National Research Council at the California Institute of Technology. In 1927, Mr.. P. was promoted to assistant professor in 1929 - Associate Professor, and in 1931. - Professor of Chemistry.
Working all these years, the researcher, P. became a specialist in X-ray crystallography - X-rays passing through the crystal with the formation of a characteristic pattern by which to judge the atomic structure of the substance. Using this method, P. studied the nature of chemical bonds in benzene and other aromatic compounds (compounds that usually contain one or more benzene rings and possess aromaticity). Guggenheim Fellowship allowed him to spend the 1926/1927 academic r. for the study of quantum mechanics with Arnold Sommerfeld in Munich, Erwin Schrodinger in Zurich and at the Niels Bohr in Copenhagen. Created by Erwin Schrц╤dinger in 1926. quantum mechanics, which was called the wave mechanics, and described by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925. exclusion principle was to have a profound impact on the study of chemical bonds.
In 1928, Mr.. P. put forward his theory of resonance, or hybridization, the chemical bonds in aromatic compounds, which was based on drawn from quantum mechanics, the concept of electronic orbitals. In the older model of benzene, which is occasionally still used for convenience, three of the six chemical bonds (bonding electron pairs) between adjacent carbon atoms are single bonds, while the remaining three - double. Single and double bonds alternated in the benzene ring. Thus, benzene could have two possible structures, depending on what connections were single, and what - double. It was known, however, that the double bonds are shorter than single, and X-ray diffraction showed that all the bonds in the molecule of carbon are of equal length. The theory of resonance argued that all communication between the carbon atoms in the benzene ring were intermediate in character between single and double bonds. According to the model P., benzene rings can be viewed as hybrids of their possible structures. This concept has proved extremely useful for predicting the properties of aromatic compounds.
Over the next few years, P. continued to explore the physical and chemical properties of molecules, especially those related to resonance. In 1934, Mr.. He drew attention to biochemistry, particularly in the biochemistry of proteins. Together with A.E. Mirsky, he formulated the theory of the structure and function of the protein, together with CH.D. Korvellom studied the effect of oxygenation (oxygen saturation) on the magnetic properties of hemoglobin, oxygen-containing protein in red blood cells.
When in 1936. died Arta Noyes, P. was appointed dean of the Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and director of chemical laboratories Gates and Krellina at the California Institute of Technology. While these administrative positions, he initiated the study of atomic and molecular structure of proteins and amino acids (monomers that make up proteins) by using X-ray crystallography, and in school in 1937 ... 1938. was a lecturer in chemistry at Cornell University in Ithaca (New York).
In 1942, Mr.. P. and his colleagues received the first artificial antibodies that could change the chemical structure of some of the blood proteins known as globulins. Antibodies are globulin molecules elaborated by special cells in response to the invasion of the body antigens (alien substances), such as viruses, bacteria and toxins. Antibody is combined with a special type of antigen, which stimulates the formation of. P. put forward the correct assumption that the three-dimensional structure of the antigen and its antibodies are complementary and, thus, 'responsible' for the formation of a complex antigen - antibody. In 1947, Mr.. he and George have. Beadle received a grant for up to five years of research the mechanism by which the polio virus destroys nerve cells. During the next year, P. served as a professor at Oxford University.
Job P. of sickle-cell disease was launched in 1949, when he learned that the red blood cells of patients with this hereditary disease are crescent-shaped only in venous blood, where the low level of oxygen. On the basis of knowledge of chemistry of hemoglobin P. immediately speculated that the sickle-shaped red cells is caused by genetic defect in the depth of cell hemoglobin. (Hemoglobin molecule consists of iron porphyrins, which is called heme, and globin protein.) This assumption - clear evidence of the remarkable scientific intuition, so characteristic of P. Three years later, scientists managed to prove that the normal hemoglobin and hemoglobin, taken in patients with sickle-cell anemia, can be distinguished by electrophoresis, a method of separation of different proteins in a mixture. The discovery confirmed the belief P. that the cause of the anomaly lies in the protein part of the molecule.
In 1951, Mr.. P. and R.B. Cory published the first complete description of the molecular structure of proteins. This was the result of research, which lasted a long 14 years. Applying the methods of X-ray crystallography to analyze proteins in the hair, fur, muscles, nails and other biological tissues, they found that the chain of amino acids in proteins are twisted around one another in such a way that they form a spiral. This description of three-dimensional structure of proteins marked major progress in biochemistry.
But not all scientific endeavors P. been successful. In the early 50-ies. He focused on the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) - the biological molecule, which contains the genetic code. In 1953, when scientists around the world trying to establish the structure of DNA, P. published an article which described this structure as a triple helix that does not correspond to reality. Several months later, Francis Crick and James D. Watson published their became a famous article in which DNA molecule is described as a double helix.
In 1954, Mr.. P. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for the investigation of the nature of chemical bond and its application to determine the structure of compounds'. In his Nobel lecture P. predicted that future chemists will be 'based on new structural chemistry, in t. h. on well-defined geometric relationships between atoms in molecules and the strict application of new structural principles, . and that through this technology will be significant progress in addressing the problems of biology and medicine using chemical methods'.,
. Despite the fact that in his youth, who came to the First World War, P
. was a pacifist, . during the Second World War, the scientist took the official position of member of the National Research Committee on Defense and worked on the creation of a new rocket fuel and the search for new sources of oxygen for submarines and aircraft,
. As an employee of the Office of Research and Development, he has made a significant contribution to the development of plasma substitutes for blood transfusion and for military purposes. However, shortly after the U.S. dropped atomic bombs on Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, P. started a campaign against a new type of weapon and in 1945 ... 1946. As a member of the Commission on National Security, and has lectured about the dangers of nuclear war.
In 1946, Mr.. P. became one of the founders of the Emergency koiteta of the Atomic Scientists, established by Albert Einstein and 7 other renowned scholars in order to seek the prohibition of nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere. Four years later, the nuclear arms race has gained speed and P. made against the decision of his Government on the establishment of a hydrogen bomb, calling for an end to all nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere. In the early 50's. When the United States and the Soviet Union tested hydrogen bombs and the level of radioactivity in the atmosphere increased, P. used his considerable talent as a speaker to disclose the possible biological and genetic effects of radioactive fallout. Concerns about academic potential genetic risk is partly attributable to its research on molecular bases of inherited diseases. P. and 52 other Nobel laureates signed in 1955. Maynauskuyu declaration calling for an end to the arms race.
When in 1957. P. drafted a manifesto, which contained a demand to stop nuclear tests, had signed more than 11 thousand. scientists from 49 countries, and among them more than 2 thousand. Americans. In January 1958,. P. introduced the document, Dag Hammarskjold, who was then the UN Secretary-General. Undertaken P. efforts have contributed to the establishment of the Pugwash movement for scientific cooperation and international security, the first conference of supporters of which took place in 1957,. in Pugwash (Nova Scotia, Canada) and who eventually managed to promote the signing of a treaty banning nuclear tests. Such a serious public and personal concern about the risk of contamination of the atmosphere with radioactive substances has led to, . that in 1958, . despite the absence of any agreement was, . United States, . USSR and the United Kingdom voluntarily stopped testing nuclear weapons in the atmosphere.,
. However, the efforts of P. aimed at, to ban nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere, greeted not only support but also considerable resistance
. Prominent American scientists like Edward Teller and Willard F. Libby, both members of the Atomic Energy Commission, the U.S. argued that P. exaggerates the biological effects of radioactive fallout. P. also ran into political obstacles because of the attributed to him the pro-Soviet sympathies. In the early 50-ies. the scientist had difficulty obtaining a passport (for travel abroad. - Ed.), And he got a passport without any restrictions only after it was awarded the Nobel Prize.
It may seem strange, but in the same period, P. was attacked in the Soviet Union, since its resonance theory of chemical bond formation was considered contrary to the Marxist doctrine. (After the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953. This theory has been recognized in the Soviet science.) P. twice (in 1955 and 1960.) summoned to the subcommittee on Homeland Security of the U.S. Senate, where he was asked about his political views and political activities. In both cases, he denied that he ever been a communist sympathizer or a Marxist views. In the second case (in 1960) he was risking a charge of contempt of Congress, refused to name names of those who helped him gather signatures to appeal 1957. Eventually the case was dismissed.
In June 1961,. P. and his wife convened a conference in Oslo (Norway) against the spread of nuclear weapons. In September of that year, despite treatment P. to Nikita Khrushchev, the Soviet Union resumed nuclear testing in the atmosphere, and the following year, in March, did the U.S.. P. Started a dosimetric control levels of radioactivity and in October 1962. made publicly known information, which showed that because of the ongoing trials in the previous year level of radioactivity in the atmosphere rose by half compared with the previous 16 years. P. also drafted a proposed treaty banning such tests. In July 1963. U.S., USSR and Great Britain signed a treaty banning nuclear testing, which was based on the draft PA
In 1963, Mr.. P. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1962. In his opening speech on behalf of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, Gunnar Yang said that the P. 'relentless campaign waged not only against nuclear weapons tests, . not only against the spread of these weapons, . not only against their very use, . but against any military action as a means of solving international conflicts',
. In his Nobel lecture, called 'Science and Peace' ( 'Science and Peace'), P. expressed the hope that a treaty banning nuclear tests put 'beginning of a series of treaties that would lead to the creation of a new world where the possibility of war will be permanently excluded'.
In the same year, when P. received his second Nobel Prize, he retired from the California Institute of Technology and became a professor-researcher at the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions in Santa Barbara (California). Here he was able to devote more time to issues of international disarmament. In 1967. P. also was appointed professor of chemistry at the University of California (San Diego), hoping to spend more time for research in molecular medicine. Two years later he went out and became a professor of chemistry at Stanford University in Palo Alto (Calif.). By this time P. already resigned from the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions.
In the late 60-ies. P. interested in the biological effects of vitamin C. Scientist and his wife, have become routinely take this vitamin, P. began to publicly promote its use to prevent colds. In the monograph 'Vitamin C and colds' ( 'Vitamin C and the Common Cold'), which was released in 1971, P. summarized the published version of the current empirical evidence and theoretical calculations in support of the therapeutic properties of vitamin C. In the early 70-ies. P. also formulated the theory of orthomolecular medicine, which emphasized the importance of vitamins and amino acids in maintaining the optimum molecular environment for the brain. These theories have received at that time widely known, not been confirmed by subsequent studies and have largely been rejected by experts in medicine and psychiatry. AP, however, is of the view that the grounds of their counter-arguments are not perfect.
In 1973, Mr.. P. founded the Medical Scientist Linus Pauling Institute in Palo Alto. During the first two years he was its president and then became professor. He and his colleagues at the Institute continue to study the therapeutic properties of vitamins, in particular the possibility of using vitamin C for cancer treatment. In 1979. P. published book 'Cancer and Vitamin C' ( 'Cancer and Vitamin C'), which argues that taking in large doses of vitamin C helps prolong life and improve the condition of patients to certain types of cancer. However, credible cancer researcher did not find his arguments convincing.
In 1922, Mr.. P. he married Ava Helen Miller, one of his students at Oregon State Agricultural College. In the couple has three sons and a daughter. After his wife died in 1981. P. live in their suburban home in the Big Syure (California).
Besides the two Nobel Prizes, P. has been awarded many prizes. Among them: a reward for his achievements in the field of pure chemistry of the American Chemical Society (1931), . Davy Medal of the Royal Society of London (1947), . Soviet government award - the International Lenin Prize "for strengthening peace among peoples' (1971), . National Medal 'For his scientific achievements' of the National Science Foundation (1975), . Gold Medal Lomonosov Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1978), . Prize for Chemistry of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (1979) and the Priestley Medal of the American Chemical Society (1984),
. Academic honorary degree of Chicago, Princeton, Yale, Oxford and Cambridge Universities. P. is in many professional organizations. This is the American National Academy of Sciences, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, as well as scientific societies or academies of Germany, Great Britain, Belgium, Switzerland, Japan, India, Norway, Portugal, France, Austria and the USSR. He was president of the American Chemical Society (1948) and the Pacific Branch of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1942 ... 1945), as well as vice-president of the American Philosophical Society (1951 ... 1954).