Robinson (Robinson), Robert( English chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1947)
Comments for Robinson (Robinson), Robert
Biography Robinson (Robinson), Robert
September 13, 1886, Mr.. - Feb. 8, 1975
English chemist Robert Robinson was born in the estate Rafferd, near Chesterfield (Derbyshire). He was the eldest of five children of William Breberi Robinson and his second wife Jane (Deyvinport) Robinson. Since 1874. Robinson family was doing well, being engaged in the production of dressings. Father R. William Robinson, began production of cotton, invented a mechanical machine for the manufacture of lint and the technological process of automatic cutting cotton bandages.
When P. was three years, their large family (it also included eight children from his first marriage of his father) settled near New Brampton. Receiving primary education in kindergarten, Mrs. Wilke and then chesterfildskuyu graduated from high school, P. Falnekskuyu enrolled in school - well-known educational institution, located between Leeds and Bradford, who led the religious community of Moravians. R., whose family professed Congregationalism remained in Falnekskoy school until 1902 and then entered the University of Manchester.
P. showed a deep interest in mathematics, but his father saw his son in the family business successor, insisted that he had studied chemistry. Department of Chemistry, University of Manchester, which was headed by William G. Perkin, Jr., was at that time the leading center for teaching and research. When P. has come, a member of the faculty was born in Russia, the chemist Chaim Weizmann, later Israel's first president and founder of the Research Institute in Rehovot, a schoolmate P. - Walter H. Haworth. In 1905, after graduating with honors, University, P. began working in a private research laboratory Perkin, where he studied the structure and chemical properties brazilin derived from wood dye. This is a natural dye and its derivative, hematoxylin, remained the subject of research R. within the next 69 years. Among other topics of interest that arose in the P. the period of joint work with Perkin and maintained throughout life, are the salt railing, anthocyanidins and synthesis of alkaloids.
P. returned to Manchester University as a junior member of the University Corporation in 1906. and in 1907 ... 1909. benefited from. In 1910,. He received his doctorate and 2 years later, at the age of 26, became the first Professor of Pure and Applied Organic Chemistry at the University of Sydney in Australia. In the same year he married Gertrude Maida Welch, who along with studying at the University of Manchester. In the couple's son and daughter were born.
P. headed the Department of Organic Chemistry at Liverpool University (1915 ... 1920), St Andrews (1921) and Manchester (1922 ... 1928), as well as at University College London (1928 ... 1930). He became the successor Perkin as a professor of chemistry at Oxford University. In 1920, Mr.. R. a short time worked as the head of scientific research 'British daystaff Corporation', where he acquired extensive knowledge in the chemistry of dyes. They are very useful scientist when he was in 1929. He was appointed consultant in the research department of the commission dyes 'Imperial Chemical Industries Limited'.
After studying brazilin P. used derivatives of catechin, and then attempted to synthesize the alkaloid containing isoquinoline - bicyclic structure of atoms of carbon and nitrogen. Alkaloids are complex nitrogen-containing substances of plant origin, including quinine, cocaine, atropine, morphine and opium. Even working in the laboratory in Manchester, Perkin, R. synthesized papaverine. Since the preparation of alkaloids gidrastina, narcotine and tropinona (closely related to atropine and cocaine) is not difficult, P. believed that these chemicals should be similarly synthesized by plants. His theory biogenezisa alkaloids, according to which the 3 simple molecules, when combined, form a complex system that was later confirmed as a result of using tracer analysis of reactions occurring in living plants. R. synthesized, and then set the structure of many other alkaloids, including morphine, strychnine, brucine, akuamitsina and (with R.B. Woodward) Aymalin.
Together with his wife P. conducted an extensive study of floral anthocyanin pigments (blue-red) and antoksantina (yellow). They are synthesized in the laboratory of many pigments, which were identical to naturally occurring substances. R. and his collaborators have developed a high-speed tests to determine the pigments using only a few flower petals and published a catalog of color pigments. Applying these short tests to analyze plant pigments, wife of R. also studied genetic variation in colors.
Another complex molecular structure, which represented for P. interest, was the skeleton of the carbon ring of steroid hormones. In collaboration with many scientists, including John Y. Cornforth, R. received the female hormone estrone and 3 synthetic estrogen: stilbestrol, and geksestrol dienestrol. The scientist also contributed to the theory of the behavior of electrons in chemical reactions, in the part which deals with issues of distribution and conditional valence electrons in the aromatic carbon compounds. Eden R. laid the foundations of modern theoretical organic chemistry and have subsequently developed another scientist Arthur Lepuortom at Manchester University.
After the start in 1939. World War II P. devoted a considerable part of their efforts the work related to military contracts, in t.ch. the creation of explosives and protection against chemical weapons. He also contributed to the development of chemotherapy, working in the medical research council. Particular attention is paid scientist made by them to attempt to synthesize penicillin, which was opened by Alexander Fleming in 1928
In 1945 ... 1950. R. was president of the Royal Society of London. In this capacity he played a prominent role in promoting scientific research in the postwar years, did much to revitalize the international scientific unions. For this work in 1949. scientist was awarded the Order of Merit.
In 1947, Mr.. R. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for the study of plant products of high biological importance, especially the alkaloids'. In his opening speech on behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Arne Fredga emphasized that the clarification of the structure of alkaloids - 'problem both difficult and fascinating. It requires the experimenter's skill, creativity and the iron logic '. 'All this showed Sir Robert, - added Fredga. - That is why we honor him as our outstanding contemporary '.
When in 1951. R. reached the set in Oxford University term retirement, his stay at his post was extended until 1955. This year he became president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. He was also president of the Society of Chemical Industry (1958 ... 1959). The Second World War disrupted plans for p. to create a magazine that would provide the organic chemist to publish material on the most significant problems. However, the idea was later embodied in the life: P. with R.B. Woodward founded a magazine and called him a 'tetrahedron' ( 'Tetrahedron'). In 1957. released its first issue.
Comrade P. of University of Manchester, Chaim Weizmann, developed a technical process of oil cracking, which formed the basis of productive activity of industrial companies 'Petrokemiklz Limited'. R. was the director of this company. In 1935. 'Petrokemiklz' entered 'Shell Chemical Company', where the scientist was appointed consultant. Working in the oil industry has led to the fact that P. interested in composition and origin of oil.
The man is extremely varied interests, R., in addition to science, was fond of music, photography and literature. He and his wife were avid gardeners, both very fond of walking in the mountains. Working in Australia, they made the ascent to the New Zealand Alps and before the Second World War was on vacation in the mountains of Great Britain, Norway, in the Pyrenees, in the French and Swiss Alps. When P. was 80 years old, he conquered the Table Mountain in South Africa. Even as a child learning to play chess, he repeatedly took the title, was even president of the British Chess Federation (1950 ... 1953). After 80 years, P. blind, but continued to play chess by e-mail correspondence, and for 2 years before his death, together with Raymond Edwards wrote the book 'The art and science of chess' ( 'The Art and Science of Chess').
. Gertrude Robinson died in 1954, shortly before her husband retired from the University of Oxford
. Three years later, P. married Stern Hillstrom. A few years before his death - a dead scientist in the age of 88 in Great Missendene (county Bekingemshir, England) - P. began to write 2-volume autobiography, and (with E.D. Morgan) textbook 'Introduction to organic chemistry' ( 'An Introduction to Organic Chemistry'), which was published after his death.
. Among the numerous awards, . which was awarded the R., . - Medals Longstaffa (1930) and Faraday (1947) British Society of Chemistry, . Medals Davey (1930), . Royal (1932) and Copley (1942) Royal Society of London, . Lavoisier Medal of the French Chemical Society (1946), . Franklinovskogo Medal of the Franklin Institute (1947) and the Medal of Freedom United States Government (1947),
. The scientist was a member of the Biochemical Society, . Society Endocrinology, . Association of Royal Engineers Royal Society of Edinburgh, . Royal College of Surgeons, . Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, . Australian Academy of Science, . New Zealand Royal Society, . Academy of Sciences of India,
. Foreign member of many other scientific societies, he holds honorary degrees University of Belfast and Bristol, London and Paris.
Cambridge and Oxford, and many, many others.