Sabatier (Sabatier), Paul( French chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1912)
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Biography Sabatier (Sabatier), Paul
November 5, 1854, Mr.. - August 14, 1941
French chemist Paul Sabatier was born in Carcassonne, southern France. His parents - Pauline (Gilam) and Alexis Sabatier Sabatier, the landowner, who, deprived of property because of unpaid debts, opened the hat shop. S. was one of three sons and the youngest child in the family, which consisted of seven children. Inquisitive and intelligent boy, he studied at the Lyceum in Carcassonne, where teachers thought he was capable and diligent student. Sam C. often said: 'I most do so subject, which I like least'. In 1868, Mr.. he moved to the Toulouse Lyceum, to prepare for entrance exams to university. In Toulouse with. also attended public lectures on physics and chemistry, which first awakened in him a desire to engage in scientific research.
Before going to Paris for a two-year additional training, C. 1869 ... 1872 he. studied classical languages and literature at the College of St.. Mary Toulouse. In 1874,. He won first place in the entrance exams and was accepted as normal in the Ecole syuperer, and the Ecole Polytechnique. Choosing the latter, P. graduated from her for three years and was the best student in the group. Over the next year, he taught physics at school in Nimes, and then became an assistant chemist Marcellin Berthelot, the College de France. Here C. continued his studies and in 1880. received his doctorate for a thesis on the thermochemistry of sulfur and sulfates of metals.
During the next year with. studied physics at the University of Bordeaux. Back in 1882, Mr.. in Toulouse, two years later, he received the chair of Chemistry, University of Toulouse, led to the end of his scientific career. In 1905, Mr.. S. was appointed dean of the faculty and, despite the fact that in 1907. received an invitation to take the place of Henri Moissan at the University of Paris (Sorbonne), chose to stay in Toulouse.
As Berthelot, C. at the beginning of their research activities focused on the problems of Inorganic Chemistry. Using the method of vacuum distillation, it was pure hydrogen disulfide. The scientist also highlighted the binary components of boron and silicon, has opened several new nitrides of metals, has developed methods for nitrozildisernoy acid and basic mixed copper-silver salt.
In 1890-ies. S. turned to organic chemistry. He is particularly interested in the catalytic processes associated with hydrogenation, resulting in unsaturated organic compounds become saturated. (Unsaturated compounds are able to chemically join, . while the rich do not show such a trend.) At the same time in such reactions are usually served as catalysts for platinum and palladium, . a high price for them prevented the widespread industrial application,
. S. were known experiments in which nickel carbonyl obtained by exposing powdered nickel Effects of carbon monoxide. Knowing that such a reaction occurs, and when, instead of taking iron, nickel, C. questioned about whether it is possible to make other gases react with nickel and other metals. In 1896, Mr.. He received nitrogen peroxide in the presence of copper, cobalt and nickel.
When P. learned that Muassanu and Charles Moreau, another French chemist, was unable to achieve the same results using acetylene, C. repeated their experience, taking ethylene, much less chemically active substance, and ethylene gas passing over the silver and nickel. He noted that at 300 б° C causes increased temperature glow on nickel deposited carbon dioxide and excreted. According Moissan and Moreau, this gas was to be hydrogen. S. also found that the gas consists mainly of ethane, hydrogen-rich compounds. Instead of binding ethylene, as a catalyst in obtaining hydrogenated carbon compounds used powdered nickel.
. Since the saturated hydrocarbons are important intermediates in the manufacture of drugs, aromatic substances, detergents, edible fats and other industrial products, a discovery made by MS, there has been of immense practical value
. Nevertheless, the scientist had received only a few patents for his discoveries, though, and continued to engage in research. Working together with his student ZH.B. Sanderanom, he proved the ability of nickel hydrogenate (hydrogenated) other hydrocarbons.
In 1912, Mr.. S. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for the proposed method for hydrogenation of organic compounds in the presence of fine metals, which greatly stimulated the development of organic chemistry'. S. shared the prize with French chemist Victor Grignard. 'During the past 15 years - said. in his Nobel lecture - thought about the mechanism of catalysis has never left me. All my successes - a result of the birth of its findings'. 'Theories can not claim to immortality - he added. - It's just a plow, a farmer who takes in order to carry out the furrow, and that he has the full right after harvest is replaced by another, more perfect '.
A year after receiving the Nobel Prize scientist published his discoveries. (He gathered them in a summarizing monograph 'Catalysis in Organic Chemistry', which was translated into many languages, in t. h. and Russian. - Ed.) Concept C. contradicts the theory previously put forward by Wilhelm Ostwald. Ostwald believed that the gaseous reactants, colliding with a solid catalyst, absorbed micropores. S. also suggested that such reactions occur on the outer surface of the catalysts, leading to the formation of temporary, unstable, intermediate compounds. Unstable compounds then collapse, forming the final product, whose output is observed. This general concept remains valid in the assessment of the recently discovered catalysts.
In 1929, Mr.. S. resigned as dean of the faculty at University of Toulouse, and the following year resigned.
In 1884, Mr.. S. joined his lot with Germain Eraliev, daughter of a local judge. They had four daughters. After his wife died in 1898. Died with. S. Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences, American Chemical Society, Brussels scientific and British chemical company.