Sumner (Sumner), James B.( American biochemist and Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1946)
Comments for Sumner (Sumner), James B.
Biography Sumner (Sumner), James B.
November 19, 1887, Mr.. - August 12, 1955
. Betcheller American biochemist James Sumner was born in Canton (Massachusetts), . near Boston, . family Elizabeth Rand (Kelly) and Charles Sumner, . a prosperous farmer and owner of Cotton Mill, . whose ancestors immigrated to Boston in 1636, Mr.,
. After primary school, with. moved to the Roxbury Latin School, where he quickly lost interest in all subjects, except chemistry and physics. As a result of an accident while hunting he was 17 years of age lost his left hand and, . despite the fact that from birth was left-handed, . so well learned to own right, . that not only wrote, . but also played tennis, . billiards, . involved in the shooting on plates.,
. Having decided to become an electrical engineer, C
. in 1906. enrolled at Harvard University, but soon got carried away and chemistry in 1910. received a bachelor of science degree in this area. After graduating from university, he started a family business, working 10 hours a day at the factory of his uncle - 'Sumner nitted pedding Company'. It was, as he later recalled, 'dirty and uninteresting work', and a year later with. gladly accepted the offer to temporarily take the post of professor of chemistry at Allison College in Sackville (New Brunswick, Canada), but never felt propensity to teaching.
Surprisingly, C. found that enjoys 'book of life', and, after his contract expired in college, he spent a short time taught at Uorchesterskom Polytechnic Institute in Massachusetts, and in 1912. returned to Harvard in order to deepen knowledge on the chemistry and physiology. In medical school at Harvard University, he studied biochemistry at the Otto Folin, who early on did everything to convince the young chemist, that physical disability did not prevent him from making a career investigator. Soon amazing skill shown by the P. in practical laboratory work, was impressed not only Folin, but also on all other. In 1913, Mr.. S. became Master of Science, and in 1914 received his doctorate with a thesis on the formation of urea in the animal organism. (Urea is a waste product, which is formed in the body as a result of protein metabolism.)
After graduating from medical school at Harvard University, C. He was appointed assistant professor of chemistry in the Medical College of Cornell University, who was then in Mr.. Ithaca (New York). In 1929, Mr.. He became professor. Ambitious scholars,. wanted 'to find out what life is, what causes the body to grow, why do all the spins', he explained later,. So he set out to isolate and obtain pure enzyme, making thus a first step in determining the chemical composition of this important and at the same time difficult to understand the biological connection.
. Enzymes are organic catalysts - substances that are produced by living cells and regulate many chemical processes occurring in living organisms, such as the ability to digest food
. At a time when C. began to research, chemistry of enzymes still remained a mystery, although there has been much speculation that they consist of protein. Even the great German chemist Richard Vilyitetteru unable to obtain enzymes in pure form, and he came to the conclusion that the enzymes are not proteins, as yet unknown to science class of compounds.
. In preparation for his doctoral dissertation with
. have conducted experiments with urease, an enzyme plant, which is involved in the decomposition of urea. In 1916, Mr.. detected a high concentration of urease in kanavallii, tropical plant, is native to South America, and that bean kanavalliya C. attempted to identify the enzyme urease. On the assumption that it is a protein enzyme, it provided all the protein, which he managed to find in large quantities in the flowers kanavalliya, using a variety of solvents, filters, and methods of deposition.
. After 9 years of mismanagement of work
. finally identified microscopic crystals, which represented a protein. His discovery, published in 1926, was greeted with skepticism and outright ridicule. Especially critical Willstatter took it with her students, saying that obtained with. crystals contain only some small non-protein substance is active. During the next 4 years. defended his views in a series of articles, which provides further experimental evidence for the theory put forward.
And only in 1930, after P. during the year studied enzymes at Stockholm University with Hans von Euler-Chelpin, his theory has finally received support from the American biochemist John X. Northrop. Northrop said that first identified in the crystalline form of the enzyme Pepsi, and 5 years later - trypsin, pancreatic enzyme. These facts helped convince biochemists in the protein nature of enzymes, although some of them also contain non-proteinaceous substances. By 1946,. was isolated and identified about 30 enzymes.
'For the discovery of the phenomenon of crystallization of the enzymes' N. in 1946. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, which he shared with Northrop and Wendell M. Stanley. In his opening speech on behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Arne Tiselius said that 'obtained. results indicate about his pioneering work, which first persuaded researchers that the enzymes are substances that can be isolated in pure form in significant amounts'. Thanks undertaken with. efforts, said Tiselius, 'laid the groundwork for a more detailed entry in the chemical nature of these substances, from which must ultimately depend on understanding the mechanisms of reactions occurring in living cells'.
. 'A lot of people told me that my desire to provide an enzyme - is not nothing but a folly, - recalled with
. in his Nobel lecture. - But these words are even more convinced me that if this attempt can be successful, it should take '. Aware of the process of studying isolated enzyme, C. pointed to the achievements made in this area. 'Due to the relatively recent studies have clarified the mechanisms of almost all the complex reactions that occur in the splitting of glycogen to carbon dioxide and water, - he said. - Moreover, the work carried out by [Charles V. ] Corey and his colleagues, gave us evidence that hormones function through its effects on the enzymes'.
A year after receiving the Nobel Prize with. was appointed director of the new laboratory chemistry of enzymes, Cornell University, where he continued his research and was carrying a large teaching load. In 1915, Mr.. S. married Bertha Louise Ricketts, with whom he had five children and with whom he divorced in 1930. The following year he remarries. His chosen one becomes Agnes Pauline Landkvist from Sweden. Her with. divorced in 1943. In the same year he marries Mary Morrison Weyer. In the couple had two children.
It is not always patient, very demanding teacher, C. earned the respect of students that did not spare himself in the work. 'The main thing I tried to teach the students - he once said - is to awaken in them a curiosity about the outside world, the desire to know this world, guided by a guiding star - the truth'. S., fond of tennis, was known as a great player. A passionate lover of hiking, he also studied photography with pleasure, he loved to cook, to learn foreign languages. Soon after retirement from Cornell University in 1955. S. ill and died of cancer in Buffalo (New York).
Among many awards, which honored scientist, was Scheele Medal, awarded by the Swedish Chemical Society (1937). S. was a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, as well as the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.