FISCHER (Fischer), Emil( German organic chemist Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1902)
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Biography FISCHER (Fischer), Emil
October 9, 1852, Mr.. - July 15, 1919
German organic chemist Hermann Emil Fischer was born in Euskirchen, a small town near Cologne, in the family of Lorenz Fisher, a prosperous merchant, and Julia Fischer (nee Poensgen). Before entering the public school and high school Wetzlar Bonn he spent three years in a private teacher. Spring 1869. He graduated with honors from the Bonn school.
Although F. hoped for an academic career, he agreed to two years to work in his father's firm, but has shown in the case of so little interest that in the spring of 1871. father sent him to the University of Bonn. There he attended lectures by a famous chemist Friedrich August Kekulц╘ von Stradonitz, physicist August Kundt and mineralogist Paul Groth. To a large extent influenced by Kekulц╘ von Stradonitz, pays little attention to laboratory work, interest in chemistry at the P. began to weaken, and he reached out to physics.
In 1872, Mr.. on the advice of his cousin, a chemist, Otto Fischer, he transferred to the University of Strasbourg, located in Alsace-Lorraine, especially the French provinces, annexed by Germany after the Franco-Prussian War. In Strasbourg, under the influence of a professor, a young organic chemist Adolf von Baeyer, y F. once again raised interest in the chemistry. Shortly F. dipped in chemical research and was last seen after the discovery of phenylhydrazine (oily liquid used for the determination of dextrose), a substance, which he used later for classification and synthesis of sugars. After receiving his doctorate in 1874,. He was appointed lecturer at Strasbourg University.
When the next year, Bayer received the post in the University of Munich, F. consented to become his assistant. Financially independent and free from administrative and teaching duties, F. able to focus all their attention on laboratory. In collaboration with his cousin Otto he used phenylhydrazine to examine the substances used in the manufacture of organic dyes derived from coal. Prior research F. chemical structure of these substances was not determined.
In 1878, Mr.. F. became assistant professor, University of Munich, and in 1897. - Associate Professor of Analytical Chemistry. Three years later, he left Munich and became professor of Chemistry, University of Erlangen. There he studied compounds such as caffeine, theobromine (an alkaloid) and components of animal wastes, particularly uric acid and guanine, which he discovered, is obtained from a colorless crystalline substance which he named purines. Uric acid was discovered much earlier (in 1776) Karl Wilhelm Scheele, and in 1820, Mr.. Fridlib Ferdinand Runge identified caffeine. However, F. demonstrated that these compounds have a similar structure and can be synthesized by one of the other. Continuing to work on this subject until 1899, V. synthesized a large number of derivatives of purine series, including himself purine (1898). Purine - an important compound in organic synthesis, as it is, as was discovered later, is a necessary component of cell nuclei and nucleic acids.
After studies in 1885. post of Professor of Chemistry, University of Wц╪rzburg F. continued his studies of purine derivatives. He is also interested in the problems of stereochemistry (spatial arrangement of atoms) molecules of sugars. Applying the principle of asymmetric carbon atoms (published in 1874,. Jacob van't Hoff), F. predicted all the possible transformation of the atomic structures for the class of compounds of sugars, in 1890. he was able to synthesize in the laboratory mannose, fructose and glucose.
In 1892, Mr.. F. became director of the Chemical Institute of Berlin University, and held that post until his death. Broadening the scope of the study from the Sahara to the enzymes, he discovered that the enzymes react only with substances with which they have a chemical affinity. Through research with the squirrels, he found the number of amino acids that make up the majority of proteins, as well as the relationship between the various amino acids. Over time, he synthesized peptides (combinations of amino acids) and classified more than forty types of proteins, . based on the number and types of amino acids, . formed during the hydrolysis (the chemical process of destruction, . includes the splitting of the chemical bond and the associated elements of water).,
. An active supporter of basic research, S
. campaigned in support of interdisciplinary projects, as the expedition to monitor the solar eclipse to test the theory of relativity. Focusing on the policy of the Rockefeller Foundation, which enabled direct the activities of American scientists exclusively on basic research, S. in 1911. received funds to establish the Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry of Kaiser Wilhelm in Berlin. In 1914, Mr.. He received the equipment for the establishment of the Institute of Coal Research in Mц╪lheim Kaiser Wilhelm.
In 1902, Mr.. F. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "in recognition of his special merits associated with the experiments on the synthesis of substances with a saccharide and purine groups'. Opening S. gidrazinovyh derivatives, as it turned out, was a brilliant solution to the problem of obtaining sugars and other compounds artificially. Moreover, its method of synthesis of glycosides has made some contribution to the development of plant physiology. Talking about research Sakharov, EF. in his Nobel lecture stated that "gradually the veil, through which Nature has concealed its secrets, was ajar in matters relating to carbohydrate. Despite this, the chemical riddle of life can not be solved until then, until organic chemistry to explore other, more complex subject - whites'.
In 1888. F. married Agnes Gerlach, the daughter of a professor of anatomy University of Erlangen, they had three sons. His eldest son Herman became a professor of biochemistry, University of California at Berkeley,. Wife F. died seven years after marriage. After prolonged contact in the laboratory with phenylhydrazine in F. formed in chronic eczema, and gastrointestinal disorders, which in 1919. led to his death. Richard Vilshetter considered him 'not having equal classicist, master of Organic Chemistry, both in analysis and in synthesis, and in personal on a wonderful person'. In his honor Germanskoe Chemical Society established a medal of Emil Fischer.
Among his numerous awards and honors were Davy Medal of the Royal Society of London, a Prussian Order of Merit and the Order of Maximilian for his services to art and science. He was an honorary doctorate by the University of Oslo, Manchester, Brussels and Cambridge. He was a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences and president Germanskogo Chemical Society. F. created a large scientific school. Among his pupils - Otto Diels, Adolf Windaus, Fritz Pregl, Otto Warburg.