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Haworth (Haworth), Walter N.

( English chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1937)

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Biography Haworth (Haworth), Walter N.
March 19, 1883, Mr.. - March 19, 1950
English chemist Walter Norman Haworth was born in the small town of Chorley (Lancashire) and was the second son and fourth child of Thomas and Hannah Haworth. H. had to stop visiting a local school, when he had not yet turned 14 years old, and start to work in a factory for the production of linoleum.
run by his father. Although X. was negligent employee, acquaintance with the dyes used in the factory, aroused his interest in chemistry. He began to study with a private teacher from a nearby g. Preston. After passing the entrance examinations to the University of Manchester in 1903 he. became a student in the group have. Perkin, Jr., Dean of Chemical Faculty of the University. In 1906, Mr.. He graduated with honors and in the subsequent three years as assistant Perkin research terpenes, hydrocarbons, which have been found in some vegetable oils and used as solvents.
Scholarship given X. opportunity in 1909. work with Otto Wallachia at the University of GцІttingen, where he was awarded a doctoral degree. Upon his return to Manchester in 1911. He again received a doctorate and was appointed senior demonstrator at the rate of chemistry in science and technology at Imperial College in London. The following year he became a lecturer in chemistry at the Joint University College St.. Andrew's in Scotland. In this college, he became acquainted with the work of Thomas Purdy and James Irwin, pioneers in the field of determining the structure of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates - a huge number of substances from starch to cellulose, essential for living organisms. They consist of one or more molecules of simple sugars, which in turn are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, linked in various ways. While carbohydrate components have already been identified, but for many of carbohydrates was not determined their spatial structure. Shortly after his arrival at the University of St.. Andrew X. began to shift its center of interest of the patient with carbohydrates, especially sugars and sugar.
Research X. were suspended in 1914. in connection with the First World War. During the next four years, the chemical laboratory of the University of St.. Andrew produced medicines and chemical reagents needed for the British Army. After the conclusion of peace X. and his colleagues were able to return to academic studies, and X. immersed in the interrupted studies saccharides.
In 1920, Mr.. he became a professor of organic chemistry at Armstrong College (now King's College) in Darhemskom University (Newcastle), where he headed the Department of Chemistry within the next year. In 1925, Mr.. he joined the University of Birmingham, where he was appointed professor of chemistry.
In 20-ies X. studied the structure of mo-nosaharidov (simple sugars) and oligo-saccharides, more complex molecules Sakha-ditch, formed from a small number of simple sugars. In 1925, Mr.. He suggested that the structure of glucose, common sugar, which is the precursor of carbohydrates (and therefore energy) of mammals, consists of six atoms connected with each other in the ring. His model differs from the previously proposed model of Emil Fischer, who was the structure of Sakha-ing depicted in the form of linear non-closed structures. As a result of this and further work in the late 20-ies Birmingham has become a leading center for study of carbohydrates.
Continuing his studies of sugars and related carbohydrates in the 30-ies, X. and his colleagues have also begun to explore geksuronovuyu acid - a substance that has been allocated Albert Szent-Derdi of the adrenal glands of animals and red pepper. By 1932, Mr.. H. found that the carbohydrate consists of six carbon atoms, 8 hydrogen atoms and 6 oxygen atoms and has a five-membered ring-shaped structure with three short branched chains. H. renamed geksuronovuyu acid because of its antiscorbutic properties of ascorbic acid, or vitamin C. Following this discovery, X. became the first person to synthesize vitamin. Shortly after the synthesis of vitamin C, H., staying in Birmingham, strived to equip the new equipment chemistry department in Manchester. Laboratories were opened after a complete set in 1937. Frederick Goulendom Hopkins.
In 1936, Mr.. H. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for the study of carbohydrates and vitamin C'. He shared the prize with Paul Karrer. In his speech at the presentation of the winners of a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences KV. Palmer reminded the audience about the importance of research vitamins. He said: 'Investigations X. vitamin C have opened the way to obtaining artificially connection, it is extremely important vitamin, which is in nature a very meager concentrations. Now Vitamin C is already being produced in industrial quantities, and the price of the synthetic vitamin significantly lower than the natural product '.
In 1938. overstretch has led to a deterioration of health, H., and he was forced to severely limit the work. By 1941, however, he regained his strength and led the British chemical Atomic Energy Commission.
In this role he led obtaining a highly purified uranium and fluorine-organic compounds. At the same time, he was chairman of the Council for Chemical Research at the Faculty of Science and Technology Studies, . well as an active organizer of the Study Association of Manufacturers of rubber and Study Association of colonial goods,
. From 1943 to 1946. he was the dean of the faculty at the University of Birmingham, and from 1944 to 1946,. was also president of the British Society of Chemistry.
After returning in 1948. London from Birmingham X. remains an active member of several governmental and corporate boards and committees. He was the representative of Royal Society of London at the VII Pacific Science Congress in New Zealand in 1949, and then made a series of lectures in Adelaide, Sydney and Melbourne. The following year, after a few days after the opening conference of the British Society of Chemistry, devoted to the settlement terms of carbohydrates, X. died at his home from a heart attack. He survived his wife, Violet Hilton (nee Dobbie), whom he married in 1922, and two sons.
It is closed, X. was known to his colleagues and friends as a noble, sensitive and kind man. Love to travel X. combined with the completion of knowledge in antiquity, painting and classical literature. He was awarded the Longstaff Medal of the British Society of Chemistry (1933) and medals Davey (1934) and King (1942) Royal Society of London. He was a member of the British Society of Chemistry and an honorary member of the Swiss Chemical Society, the Bavarian and the Vienna Academy of Sciences, as well as a number of other academies. He was awarded an honorary degree from the University of Manchester, Cambridge, Zurich, as well as Queen's University in Belfast.

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