Ziegler (Ziegler), Carl( German organic chemist Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1963)
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Biography Ziegler (Ziegler), Carl
November 26, 1898, Mr.. - August 11, 1973
German organic chemist Karl Ziegler was born in Gelsa, in the family of Louise (Rall) Ziegler and Karl Ziegler, a Lutheran priest. In 1916, Mr.. He was admitted to the University of Marburg, where he studied chemistry under the guidance of well-known organic chemist Carl von Auwers, and in 1920,. he was awarded a doctoral degree. Three years later, C. received the academic certificate and began teaching at the University of Marburg. After 1925. as a guest lecturer at the Frankfurt University, he moved to Heidelberg, where in 1927. became professor of chemistry. Nine years later, C. was appointed professor of chemistry and director of the Chemical Institute of the University of Gaul, and in 1943. became director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Coal Research in Mц╪lheim, where he remained until the end of his scientific activities.
In Heidelberg U. began to investigate the free radicals (chemical compounds containing unpaired electrons), compounds with large rings and engage in the synthesis of organometallic compounds. However, only going to work in the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (later called the Max Planck Institute), he developed methods of polymerization, which eventually brought him worldwide recognition. C. and his colleagues have studied the mechanism of polymerization reactions of unsaturated hydrocarbons such as ethylene and propylene. At the beginning of XX century. was known that these lighter substances capable of forming giant molecules, linking thousands of identical molecules in long chains. In fact, such high molecular weight polymers form the basis of many modern materials such as plastics and synthetic fabrics. However, when T. began work on this topic, there were no methods of chemical control over the organization of molecules within the chains. Study Group C. found that certain organo-metallic substances, such as triethylaluminum, catalyze samokondensatsiyu ethylene formation is not polyethylene, and organometallic and unsaturated molecules of intermediate sizes.
. In 1952, after four years of study of the scientific interest of reaction, C
. concluded that traces of nickel interfere with polymerization, significantly speeding up the reaction proceeding collaterally. Study Group C. then proceeded to a systematic analysis of the elements of the periodic table in search of other inorganic compounds that lead to a similar effect. Their aim was to 'aseptic', as later told Ts, ie. the ability to eliminate any traces of catalysts, which prevents the polymerization. Interestingly, when they tested the corresponding compound of zirconium, we found that it not only prevents the polymerization, but on the contrary, acts together with triethylaluminum and is a strong catalyst for the polymerization of ethylene. Polyethylene was obtained quickly and easily.
It has always been that ethylene is extremely difficult to polymerize. Polyethylene, first obtained in 1936. company 'Imperial Chemical industriz', demanded a very high temperature (200 б╟ C) and pressure (at least in the thousands of atmospheres), and the properties of the resulting plastic fell short of expectations. New integrated catalyst C. not only contributed to polymerization at much lower temperatures and pressures. It also received the material much better properties - a dense, hard and resistant to high temperatures. The discovery in November 1953. This new reaction Polyethylene followed several weeks of surprisingly fruitful. It was during this period was discovered by a number of other inorganic compounds with similar properties - compounds of metals such as titanium, thorium, and iron. In the presence of titanium tetrachloride, for example, the polymerization reaction was at room temperature and normal atmospheric pressure.
Even before the publication of scientific articles on this work C. received a license to this process, and many began to improve scientific and technological aspects of this reaction. Italian chemist Giulio Natta, who had previously obtained a license, opened a similar reaction of transformation of propylene in polypropylene. Natta also used the excellent structural properties and stereospecificity of reactions, known as catalysts for the Ziegler - Natta. In other words, it was found that these catalysts allow chemists to carry out any incomparable control over the exact structure and spatial orientation of new polymers. Chemists have long known, . that very subtle differences in the architecture of molecules can lead to radical differences in the properties of substances, . such, . example, . as the difference between the polyethylene of low and high density (respectively, polyethylene of high and low pressure),
. Now you can, using the catalysts of Ziegler - Natta, synthesize material, which was completely identical to the natural rubber. These discoveries have revolutionized the production of plastic materials, as well as other ways to obtain polymers. Already in 1955. received 200 metric tons of new polyethylene, to 1958. its production has increased to 17 thousand. tons, and by 1962. - Up to 120 thousand. tons, and all that as a result of various processes that directly or indirectly, took its origin in the work of C.
In 1963, Mr.. C. with Natta was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his discoveries in the field of chemistry and technology of high polymers'. In his opening speech on behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Arne Fredga said of the study, . conducted Ts, . as' the brilliant work on organometallic compounds, . [which] unexpectedly led to new polymerization reactions and, . thus, . paved the way for new, . extremely fruitful production processes',
. In his Nobel lecture C. traced the development of the open method, comparing the recent 'rapid spread of macromolecular chemistry and its industrial applications ... the explosion '.
Despite the enormity of the industrial application of their work, C. always said that he is essentially representative of pure science. Research, which he conducted throughout the research activities were directed not at the inventions and scientific discoveries in. This research program demonstrates the remarkable, comprehensive unity. For example, the study of ethylene polymerization based on earlier studies of reactions involving organometallic compounds, and this work is derived from the originally arose from C. interest during the preparation of the doctoral dissertation of free radicals, which were discovered shortly before.
When C. in 1943. negotiated with the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for the Study of coal, he insisted that if it moves there any restrictions not applied to the subject of its research. As he later explained, such restrictions 'to all the springs dried' his 'creativity'. The nature of his work T. described in his Nobel lecture: "I never started with any similarity was formally set out the problem. All my efforts have evolved spontaneously, starting with something essentially irrational in nature ... My method was like wandering on a new, uncharted land, during which constantly opens up interesting perspectives ... however, such that no one knows exactly where this journey will lead '. Despite the fact that Y. always opposed to be called a chemical engineer, he defended his financial interests arising from discoveries made by him. Scientist has received huge royalties as the owner of a patent, used in manufacturing processes developed by them and shortly before retirement in 1969, established the Ziegler Fund with the contribution of 40 million. marks.
Man is very modest and friendly, Y. was known as a talented and dedicated teacher, who was a supervisor at the 150 applicants for the doctoral. In 1922, Mr.. He married Mary Kurtz. In the couple had two children, Marianna and Earhart, and 10 grandchildren. Mary survived her husband, and C. died in Mulheim in 1973, the eve of the 52-th anniversary of their wedding.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, C. , was awarded the Charles Dyuizberga Germanskogo Chemical Society (1953), Lavoisier medal of the French Chemical Society (1955) and medals of the London Institute Swinburne plastics and rubber (1964). He was an honorary doctor of technical universities of Hanover and Darmstadt, Heidelberg and Hessian universities.