Jö°RI (Urey), Harold K.( The American chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1934)
Comments for Jö°RI (Urey), Harold K.
Biography Jö°RI (Urey), Harold K.
April 29, 1893, Mr.. - January 5, 1981
American chemist Harold Clayton Urey was born in Walkerton (Indiana), the son of Cora Rebecca (Reynoul) and Samuel Clayton Urey. His father, a priest and a schoolteacher, died when the boy was six years old, and mother SW. married a second time, too, for the cleric.
Despite the fact that the teaching was given to S. with difficulty, he is in 1911. received a diploma from high school. After a three-month courses for teachers, SW. within three years he taught in rural schools, first in Indiana and then in Montana. In 1914, Mr.. he entered the University of Montana, doing it mostly in zoology and a little chemistry. Having three years later, the degree of bachelor of science, SW. went to work as research chemist in 'Barrett Chemical Company' in Philadelphia. However, disappointed in industrial chemistry, he was in 1919. returned to the University of Montana professor of chemistry. Two years later, S. received a scholarship that allowed him to become a graduate student in chemistry at the University of California at Berkeley.
Start 20-ies. marked by a number of great discoveries in physics. The revolution in physics has taken place not only through established Max Planck quantum theory, special and general theory of relativity of Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr an open planetary model of the atom. She has also contributed to the further development of theoretical chemistry. Hardly any American scientists realized it was better than physical chemist Gilbert H. Lewis, who, as a supervisor S. Berkeley, promotes the interests of South. to examine the links between physics and chemistry. Following the award of S. in 1923. doctoral degree in chemistry, he received a scholarship of the American-Scandinavian Foundation to study at the Institute for Theoretical Physics, Niels Bohr in Denmark. Here he perfected his knowledge of physics under the leadership of Niels Bohr and other leading scientists.
Returning in 1924. U.S., SW. became the youngest member of the corporation at Johns Hopkins University, where he studied molecular thermodynamics and molecular structure, as well as optical absorption and emission of atoms. The results of quantum chemistry at that time were summarized in the published in 1930. Book S. and Arthur Ruarka 'Atoms, molecules and quanta' ( "Atoms, Molecules, and Quanta").
In 1929, Mr.. YU. was appointed associate professor of chemistry at Columbia University in New York. At that time, scientists have used spectroscopy to determine the isotopes of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. (Isotopes have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.) These findings point to the probability of the existence of hydrogen isotope. YU. set out to make this isotope, which would be twice as heavy as ordinary hydrogen.
First, the scientist decided to get ready for the experiments, the amount of hydrogen with a high concentration of the isotope alleged. Based on the calculations, SW. developed a process of distillation of liquid hydrogen, in which the lighter isotopes would evaporate faster than heavy. At the request of S. one of his former students, Brikvedd Ferdinand, who had become a scientist and was in government service, took S. necessary for this process, the amount of hydrogen. In the meantime, he calculated the probable spectral line of the heavy isotope. Together with his assistant George Murphy, J., analyzing the spectra of hydrogen gas, found the weak lines, where and assumed the appearance of the spectral lines of the desired isotope. Subjecting the analysis of more concentrated hydrogen, he easily found the previously calculated line and, thus, confirmed the existence of the isotope. In December 1931,. YU. announced his discovery, calling the second ease deuterium atom (from the Greek deuteros - second). He also suggested the name 'third' for the open after that of another isotope of hydrogen whose mass is three times the mass of hydrogen.
. Deuterium is a very comfortable model for physicists and chemists who have studied the interaction of particles of the nucleus, and its discovery has accelerated the study of isotopes
. He was also a valuable material for other research. So, . Deuterium can replace hydrogen in water molecules, . thus generating the so-called heavy water, . which is used as a moderator in nuclear reactors, . and its merger with tritium leads to a thermonuclear reaction in hydrogen bomb,
. Since the chemical properties similar to hydrogen, deuterium, an isotope that can also be used as an indicator of biochemical reactions in living tissue.
In 1934, Mr.. YU. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for his discovery of heavy hydrogen'. He was not present at the ceremony, because at this time born of his third daughter, but three months later, gave the Nobel lecture in Stockholm. In his lecture SW. spoke about the rationale and the experimental conditions of obtaining deuterium. 'I hope - he said - that in the next few years will be received isotopes of light elements in sufficient quantity to carry out effective research in the field of chemistry, physics and biology. If this can be done, then work on deuterium is just the beginning of a very interesting scientific developments'.
In the year of receipt of the Nobel Prize SW. became a professor at Columbia University, and from 1939 to 1942. worked there as Associate Dean of Chemical Faculty. From 1933 to 1940. YU. was the first editor of the Journal of Chemical Physics' ( "Journal of Chemical Physics").
Since the beginning of the Second World War SW. and other American scientists expressed the fear that Nazi Germany used the process of nuclear fission (open in 1939. Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Shtrasmanom) to develop atomic weapons. In 1942, Mr.. U.S. government to create such a bomb, developed the Manhattan Project. Its implementation required fissiparous isotope of uranium - uranium-235. YU. headed the development of methods of separating the isotope from the more common uranium-238 as the head of the laboratory substitution alloys at Columbia University.
In 1945, Mr.. YU. retired from Columbia University and became a professor emeritus at the Institute for Nuclear Research, Enrico Fermi at the University of Chicago. In 1952, Mr.. He received the title of Honorary Professor. All this time, S. together with other scientists warned of the dangers associated with nuclear weapons. However, he later supported the development of the hydrogen bomb, the starting substance for which the deuterium is open to them.
Working in the Fermi Institute, SW. applied his knowledge of chemistry of isotopes in other areas of science. For the purposes of paleontology, he invented the 'thermometer', which calculates the past climatic changes by measuring the amount of oxygen isotopes in fossils. In cosmology it in 1956. with a chemist Hans Syuessom developed a theory explaining the origin and the relative natural isotope abundance in the Universe. In his book 'The planets: their origin and development' ( "The Planets: Their Origin and Development"), written in 1952, S. reflects on the chemical processes associated with the formation of the Solar System. Scientific interested in the problem of the origin of life, and on the advice of S. his student, Stanley Miller began working on the issue of availability of organic substances by passing an electric charge through a mixture of heated gases. These experiments, according to Yu, had to recreate the early part of the earth's atmosphere. The application of chemistry for purposes of cosmology scientist earned universal recognition as the 'father cosmochemistry'.
In 1958, Mr.. YU. became a professor at the University of California in La Jolla and worked there until 1970, when he became an honorary professor emeritus. In 60-ies. He persuaded the government to combine scientific research with the U.S. space program. YU. particularly interested in the composition, origin and topography of the moon, and he was able to examine samples of lunar rocks brought by 'Apollo'.
In 1926, Mr.. YU. married Frieda Daum, a bacteriologist. They had four children, three of whom became doctors of sciences. Colleagues have described S. as a man deeply immersed in his thoughts and at the same time open to new ideas, despite his belligerent manner peculiar to talk. For the students learned was a good friend and assistant, and his house was famous for hospitality. The range of interests SE. was extremely wide: from the Greek and Hindu sculpture to gardening. He especially loved to grow orchids.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, SW. received awards from more than 30 organizations. Among them: Willard Gibbs Medal of the American Chemical Society (1934), . Davy Medal of the Royal Society of London (1940), . Franklinovskogo Medal of the Franklin Institute (1943), . Medal of Merit of the U.S. government (1946), . Alexander Hamilton Award, Columbia University (1961), . Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society of London (1966), . Kepler Medal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1971), . Priestley Medal of the American Chemical Society (1973),
. He was a member of many scientific societies, including the American Chemical and the American Physical Society, the American National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. YU. were awarded honorary degrees from more than 25 universities.