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Arber (Arber), Werner

( Swiss scientist, specialist in the field of molecular biology, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1978)

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Biography Arber (Arber), Werner
genus. June 3, 1929
The Swiss scientist, specialist in the field of molecular biology, Werner Arber was born in Grenchen (Canton Ar). Here he received his secondary education. In 1949, Mr.. A. enrolled in the Swiss Polytechnic School in Zurich to study natural. In this school he made his first experimental work on the isolation and study of one of the radioactive isotopes of chlorine.
In 1953, Mr.. A. graduate studies, University of Geneva and became a senior laboratory department of Biophysics. Here, he developed methods for the study of bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) using electron microscopy - a method study designed to examine the microstructure of cells and tissues using electron beam. As a graduate student, A. presented the analysis of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), developed by James Watson and Francis Crick, a debating club at the department, whose members are engaged in a discussion of those findings, which learned from scientific journals. This was the beginning of a long-term interest. to the physiology and genetics of bacteriophages.
As already mentioned, bacteriophages - are viruses that infect bacterial cells. They belong to the most primitive forms of life and consist of a nucleus formed by nucleic acids, and the outer protein shell. After the introduction of the phage into the bacterial cell there are three possible ways of its further development. First, it can disrupt the regulation of the biochemical apparatus of the cells begin to multiply and cause its destruction with the release of new phage particles. Second, the phage can be included in the DNA of the bacterial cell (in this case it will be called prophage) and at the time of division, like the gene that cells transmitted to daughter cells. Finally, the phage can be cleaved by enzymes of bacterial cells, at present this phenomenon is called 'modification, controlled by the host cell'.
In the early 50's. Where A. was still a student at the Department of Biophysics, University of Geneva received the first electronic micrographs of bacteriophages. In 1958, Mr.. A. received at this university doctorate, . thesis, . devoted to the defects of the mutant strain of bacteriophage н¦, . continue for two years and worked as a post-doctoral researcher at the Department of Microbiology, University of Southern California,
. In 1960, Mr.. A. returned to the University of Geneva, but first visited a number of American laboratories involved in the study of bacteriophages. In the United States A. not only mastered the latest techniques of genetics of bacteria and bacteriophages research, but also interested in the phenomenon of 'limitations caused by the host cell', or restriction digestion. Supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation, A. engaged in the molecular basis of restriction of bacteriophages.
In 1962. with the employee-A doctoral. revealed the mechanism of 'limitations caused by the host cell', or restriction-modification. In this process of bacteriophage DNA is split into fragments under the action of restriction endonuclease enzyme, acting jointly with the methylase. This bacterial endonuclease recognizes a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA bakteriofagalnoy and in the relevant sections that cleaves DNA, thereby inactivating its. Methylases also recognizes the same sequence in the DNA of the bacterial cell, . methylates it, and thus protects it from enzymatic destruction of property endonuclease (methylation - is joining the DNA methyl groups, . consisting of one carbon atom and three hydrogen atoms).,
. A
. call this system of two enzymes of restriction-modification system. Together with his team, he not only identified and purified the endonuclease and methylase (these enzymes, respectively, limit, . ie suppress, . DNA replication of bacteriophage DNA and alter the host cell), . but also found bacteria mutants, . in which both of these enzymes were defective,
. A. calling such restriction endonucleases isolated from E. coli Escherihia coli, type I endonucleases. Such endonucleases recognize specific although bakteriofagalnoy nucleotides of DNA, split it into various parts. A. predicted, . that must exist and endonuclease type II, . operating it on the site, . they recognize, . that they allow for accurate analysis of the gene structure of DNA and that this kind of splitting genes will ever be the usual method,
. All these predictions have come true.
In 1965, Mr.. A. became an Associate Professor of Molecular Biology, University of Geneva. A year later he married. U A. and his wife, two daughters, Antonia. In the late 60-ies. A., . dissatisfied, . that students become interested not so much science, . how policy, . resigned from the University of Geneva, and adopted a proposal to become a professor of Biology Center - a new research institute, . established with the University of Basel,
. Here, for A. opened broad research opportunities. In 1970 ... 1971. Until the equipment is installed, A. worked as a visiting fellow at the Department of Molecular Biology, University of California at Berkeley. Upon his return to Switzerland A. became a professor of Molecular Biology, University of Basel.
In 1978. A. with Daniel Nathans and Hamilton Smith, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 'for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application in molecular genetics'. In his welcoming speech scientist at the Karolinska Institute, Peter Reichardt noted the contribution of A. in the discovery of restriction enzymes. He said that 'in a series of simple but elegant experiments, A. showed that the controlled modification of the host cell due to changes in DNA and, obviously, is to protect the host cell by alien genes'. 'The use of restriction enzymes, - he continued - revolution in the genetics of higher organisms, and completely changed our ideas about the organization of their genes. It turned out that in contrast to the DNA of bacteria DNA in higher organisms - this is not a continuous sequence that encodes a protein: in the genes are 'neutral' areas, interspersed with areas of storing the genetic code '.
. Continuing his studies at the University of Basel, A
. interested in different types of genetic systems, recombination and diversification of gene. Today we know that elements of genes and the genes themselves are mobile and can be exchanged between different gene systems. Thus, they can 'embed' in the DNA using the method of recombination, and they can be transferred from one DNA molecule to another. A. suggested. that the diversification of the genetic code of bacteria in the process of evolution can be explained by gene exchange.
A family man, a. considers himself a happy man, because I always felt the support of his wife and two daughters. And he answered trying to surround their attention, without which it can not be harmonious family life.

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Arber (Arber), Werner, photo, biography Arber (Arber), Werner  Swiss scientist, specialist in the field of molecular biology, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1978, photo, biography
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