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BERING (Behring), Emil von

( German bacteriologist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1901)

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Biography BERING (Behring), Emil von
March 15, 1854, Mr.. - March 31, 1917
German bacteriologist Emil Adolf von Behring, the eldest of twelve children of George August Bering, a schoolteacher, and his second wife, Augustine Behring (maiden name - shop), was born in Gansdorfe (now Poland). The boy's father had hoped that he will choose one of the traditional family professions - theology, or teaching. Consequently, in 1885. B. goes to school in Hoenshteyne (East Prussia), where he has an interest in medicine. However, realizing that the family can not afford to send him to study at medical school, B. decides to enter the Kenigebergsky University for a course of theology. At this time one of his grammar school teacher arranged for his visit to the Military College of Medicine at the Friedrich Wilhelm Institute in Berlin, which was conducted free training for future military surgeons. B. come here in 1874,. and completing college in 1878. Two years later, he takes a state exam in medicine, and in 1881. receives the appointment as assistant surgeon in Posen (now Poznan, Poland).
After receiving medical education B. had to serve in the Prussian army until 1889, Mr.. He served in a cavalry regiment in Posen, and being a doctor battalion stationed in the ox, B. interested in the use of disinfectants in combat for the treatment of infectious diseases. Special interest he showed in iodoform (yellow crystalline substance with a strong odor and contains about 95% of iodine) used to treat wounds and syphilitic ulcers. Initial studies iodoform led him to conclude that this compound is an effective antiseptic, tk. neutralizes the bacterial toxins.
In 1883, Mr.. B. transferred to Vintsig (Silesia), four years later he enrolled in Bonn Pharmacological Institute, where he continued research in the field of disinfectants. Later, in 1888, he gets a part-time at the Institute of Hygiene in Berlin, directed by Robert Koch. After demobilization in 1889. B. works at the Institute as a researcher with a full working day.
At the time of the study B. focused on the study of tetanus and diphtheria, . two different diseases, . which had one common characteristic feature: the two fatal diseases, . despite, . that patients were infected with a relatively small number of bacteria,
. Furthermore, important symptoms (lesions of the nervous system in the case of tetanus and defeat cardiovascular system in diphtheria) were not limited to places of infection. The risk of tetanus and diphtheria was associated with their ability to produce toxins, which was established by Pierre Roux (France) and the Friedrich Loeffler (Germany). B. suggested that the treatment of diphtheria can be successful in the case of the neutralization of the toxin secreted by diphtheritic bacteria, ie. with the manifestation of a natural protective reaction of the human body.
In 1890, Mr.. the Institute of Hygiene B. together with the Japanese scientist Kitasato Shibasaburo found, . that the immunity of rabbits and mice, . have been immunized against tetanus, . depends, . as told B., . 'the ability of cell-free blood fluid remain intact with respect to the toxic substance, . bacterium produces tetanus',
. Applying this discovery to diphtheria, B. demonstrated that the immunized animals can be protected from the toxin of bacteria diphtheritic antitoxin by injecting the immunized animals. He stated that with the advent of his proposed serum therapy 'to cure difficult diseases occurring can no longer be denied'. However B. and his colleagues at the institute have had difficulties in the production of diphtheritic antitoxin in the quantities needed for medical practice. At the same time working in the same institute Paul Ehrlich has made several important inventions, among which was the creation of large-scale production of antitoxin with the use of horse serum and standardization of serum samples. Prior to 1892, while commercial finance company did not start work B., his research he paid from own funds. With the increased use of the serum were growing fame and wealth and B.
In 1894, Mr.. B. leaves the Institute of Hygiene and goes first to the University of Halle, and the following year - in the University of Marburg. Despite the possibility of successful application of diphtheria antitoxin in the treatment of children, previously considered terminally ill (for which B. were called 'Healer children'), . serious problem of the use of antitoxin has continued to exist and it could not manage to quickly decide: antitoxin caused passive immunity (antibody, . contained in the serum, . formed cells of animals, . rather than the patient),
. As a result of antitoxin provides immunity only for a short time and had to be introduced as soon as possible after infection. By the time the symptoms of diphtheria, it was often too late to treat antitoxin, and this led to the death of the patient. B. persisted in their studies of diphtheria in the next few decades, until in 1913. not create a vaccine that provides longer active immunity against the disease.
B. was awarded the first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 1901. 'for his work on serum therapy, mainly for its use in the treatment of diphtheria, which opened up new avenues in medical science and made it into the hands of doctors victorious weapon against illness and death'. In his Nobel lecture B. officially recognized, . that serum therapy was based on the theory, . proposed 'Leffler in Germany and En France, . according to which the bacteria Leffler did not in themselves cause diphtheria, . and produce toxins, . that contribute to the development of disease ',
. He added that "without this preliminary work Leffler and Roo would not have serum therapy of diphtheria."
By that time, when B. received the Nobel Prize, he is from the study tetanus and diphtheria went on to study tuberculosis. At that time, TB is one of the seven most common diseases, are fatal, and many bacteriologists, including Robert Koch, tried to get the vaccine for the treatment of this disease. For several years, B. tried to create a tuberculous antitoxin, but failed. Much of his research was devoted to studying the relationship between man and tuberculosis in cattle. He believed that both of these diseases are identical, and this view led him into conflict with Koch. Although the human tuberculosis and tuberculosis in cattle is not considered the same disease, however, observed in transmission of TB from animals to humans. The recommendations B. to reduce the incidence of animals and disinfection of milk are important for health.
During the First World War created B. tetanus vaccine has helped save the lives of many German soldiers, and for this he was awarded the Government of Germany's Iron Cross - a rare reward for a person not participating in combat operations. An authoritative scholar, but shy man, B. had a few close friends and followers. Throughout his life he was prone to long periods of deep depression, which required periodic treatment in a sanatorium.
In 1896, Mr.. B. married to Elsa Spinola, daughter of one of the directors of the Berlin hospital. The couple had six sons. Later B. suffered a hip fracture, which led to the formation of false joints, it restricted his ability to move. March 31, 1917, Mr.. he died of galloping pneumonia in Marburg.
B. was a knight of the French Legion of Honor and a member of the Privy Council of Prussia. He was elected a member of many academies of European countries.

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