BORDEAUX Jules (Bordet)( Belgian bacteriologist and immunologist at the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1919)
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Biography BORDEAUX Jules (Bordet)
June 13, 1870, Mr.. - April 6, 1961
Belgian bacteriologist and immunologist Jules Bordet Vinset Jean Baptiste was born in Soygni and was the second son of Charles Bordet, school teacher, and Celestino (Vandeneybil) Bordet. When Jules turned 6 years old, the family moved to Brussels, where he subsequently B. went to university and finished 7-year course in medicine for 6 years. During training B. studied the mechanism of protection of bacteria from being absorbed by other cells. The results of his research were published in 1892: in the same year he received a medical degree and his work attracted the attention of Ilya Mechnikov. The Belgian Government has allocated B. scholarship that allowed him to work in the laboratory Mechnikov at the Pasteur Institute in Paris in 1894
In the same year bacteriologist Richard Pfeiffer and VI. Isaev proved that the cholera vibrios are killed when given to animals, immune to cholera, a phenomenon known as bakteriolizisa. The researchers also found that bakteriolizis observed with the introduction of bacteria with serum from having immunity to cholera animals animals having no such immunity. At the same time bakteriolizis absent in vitro tests. Metchnikoff, . Explain the results of Pfeiffer and Isayev, . suggested, . that implementation bakteriolizisa requires the presence of phagocytes (cells, . absorbing microorganisms or other cells) or from immunized, . either from unimmunized animals,
. B. also held a different opinion, believing that 'serum of patients with cholera animals, provided that it is fresh, contains two ingredients: a bactericidal and preventive. Serum with a long shelf life, or serum, heated to 55 б¦ C, bacteriological material does not contain '. Currently, a bactericidal substance, which at the time of B. called 'Aleksin', called the complement, as a preventive substance, called a 'sensitizer', referred to as antibody.
These discoveries were pioneering studies in immunology - science of the protective properties of organism. Now we know that when it enters the body of an alien substance (antigen), whether protein, bacterium or toxin, are formed in the Antibody. Each antigen stimulates the formation of specific antibodies. In forming the complex of antigen and antibody and its interaction with complement, plasma proteins, the antigen becomes harmless.
Continuing this work at the Pasteur Institute, B. showed that the hemagglutination and hemolysis (bonding and destruction of red blood cells transfused) due to the same mechanism that bakteriolizis. He explained these phenomena using the concept of antigenic specificity. According to his view, different organisms contain a variety of proteins (antigens) that can be identified using specific antisera (serum containing antibodies). B. first realized, . that the specificity of antigen-antibody complex, . their interaction with complement and subsequent precipitation of a solution (precipitation) can be used to identify any substance, . which can provide appropriate antibodies,
. Such immunological reactions are the basis of thousands of modern laboratory techniques, in t. h. health.
In 1899. B. married Martha Livoz, and they had two daughters and a son. Two years later, B. left Paris and went to Brussels, where he took the post of Director of the Institute of newly discovered bacteriology and rabies research (anti-rabies), which in 1903. was renamed the Pasteur Institute. Methods that B. development and develop over the next decade, became the basis of immunological studies in biology and medicine.
B. shown that complement binds to an antigen, provided the antigen is located in a complex with an antibody. Binding of complement causes agglutination of red blood cells or bacteria, and the agglutination reaction can be detected with the naked eye. B. and his colleague (my sister's husband Zhang Octave) realized that this property is in a complement fixation test may be used for diagnosis. In this reaction investigational antibody is added to a known antigen and a small number of complement. If the antigen and antibody correspond to each other, the complex of antigen - antibody binds complement and if we do not match - the complement remains free. In the latter case agglutination of cells and complement fixation test is negative, but if the complement complex binds antigen - antibody agglutination of cells does not occur and the reaction is positive. B. and Zhang also developed an indirect hemagglutination test, in which red blood cells are used as 'carriers' foreign antigens and agglutinated complement and the appropriate antibody.
. On the question of the mechanism of the reaction between antigen and antibody opinion B
. differed from the views of Paul Ehrlich. Ehrlich argued that this reaction is a purely chemical process and therefore should always take place under strict ratios. B. believed that the reaction resembles the absorption, in which the components are combined in different proportions. Viewpoint B. prevailed for several decades, evidenced by the fact that the antigens and antibodies react in different ratios. Later it was proved that the reaction between a specific site (site) antigen (some of them are usually located on a given protein) and any of the two sites (sites) binding to an antibody molecule of the chemical.
B. developed methods of binding complement, the most famous of which - Wasserman reaction for the diagnosis of syphilis - was put into practice by Auguste Wasserman, Albert and Carl Neysserom Pants in 1906
In the same year, B. and Zhang have used new techniques to isolate the bacteria Bordetella pertussis, which causes whooping cough. A year later, B. was appointed professor of bacteriology of Brussels University, a post he held for 28 years.
Further studies B. pertussis bacteria resulted in 1910. the first reports of the antigenic variability of bacteria. This phenomenon is of great medical significance, t. to. pathogens (especially influenza virus), which can change its antigenic structure, may be resistant to antibodies and vaccines.
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1919. not awarded, but after a year it was awarded a B. 'for his discoveries relating to immunity'. In the speech of Alfred Petterson of the Karolinska Institute during the presentation of the laureate said that the 'discovery AB, showed that the introduction of red blood cells in the body of the animal leads to the formation of specific antibodies ... was of great importance, especially after it was proved that this reaction is characteristic of an animal, is a universal biological phenomenon '. Patterson added that the opening of B. 'was particularly important for the future, t. to. paved the way for further research in the field of immunity '. B., who at the time lectured in the United States, was not present at the award ceremony, the prize was received by the Belgian Ambassador to Sweden.
During the study of immunological reactions hemagglutination B. also studied the natural ability of the blood coagulation. The most important of his contributions in this area was to explain the role of calcium ions and the enzyme thrombin in the early stages of thrombus formation.
After the First World War B. begins to study interactions between bacteria and bacteriophage (a virus that attacks bacteria). His experiments on the inheritance of bacterial cell lysogeny (ability to cause destruction of cells) helped lay the foundation for advances in molecular genetics in the middle of XX century.
Among the numerous awards B. - Prize of the City of Paris (1911), Hansen Award, the Pasteur Medal of the Swedish Medical Society (1913). He was a member of the Belgian Royal Academy, an honorary member of the Royal Society of London. Royal Society of Edinburgh. French Academy of Medicine and the American National Academy of Sciences, was awarded honorary degrees University of Cambridge, Paris, Strasbourg, Toulouse, Edinburgh, Nancy, and Quebec, as well as many other research centers