Wagner-Jauregg (Wagner-Jauregg), Julius( Austrian psychiatrist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1927)
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Biography Wagner-Jauregg (Wagner-Jauregg), Julius
March 7, 1857, Mr.. - September 27, 1940
The Austrian psychiatrist Julius Wagner-Jauregg was born in Wels (Upper Austria), where his father, Adolf Wagner, who worked as a public servant. After training in Shottengimnazium it in 1874,. enrolled in the University of Vienna. As a student, V.-I. worked under the guidance of Solomon streaker at the Institute of General and Experimental Pathology. Received in 1880. Ph.D., he became an assistant in the laboratory streaker. At this time, he is tied surviving lifelong friendship with Sigmund Freud, also works in this institute. In 1882, Mr.. VA-I. resigned from the institute, but get a job as an assistant-lecturer at the hospital, as he expected, he failed. Therefore, when in 1883. he was invited to work for Max von Leydesdorfu the psychiatric clinic of Vienna University, he agreed, but had never thought to engage in psychiatry. VA-I. worked in the clinic for six years, having received in 1885. qualified teacher of neurology and in 1887, Mr.. - Teacher of psychiatry.
While Freud became interested in the study of mechanisms of development of symptoms of systemic diseases influenced by existing mental condition, VV-I. studied the physiological causes of mental illness, mainly cretinism and progressive paralysis. Cretinism - a severe form of thyroid insufficiency, which occurs as hereditary diseases or associated with a lack of iodine in the environment. This condition causes slowing of mental and physical development. Cretinism and goiter (enlarged thyroid gland) were very common in Central Europe and in other mountainous areas with low iodine content in the soil.
VA-I. studied the distribution of endemic goiter and cretinism in southern Austria and noted the curative effect of treatment with iodine. In 1898, Mr.. He suggested that these diseases can be prevented by using iodized salt, and in 1923. Austrian government has decided to produce edible salt with the addition of iodine, several years later Emil Kocher and his colleagues persuaded the Swiss government to take similar measures.
. At the stage of tertiary syphilis penetrating pale spirochetes in the central nervous system develops progressive paralysis, which manifests the disintegration of personality, paralysis and eventually leads to death
. Although there is now paralysis rare, but at the end of XIX century. about 15% of all patients in psychiatric institutions were ill with the disease. Paresis presented so rapidly deteriorating disease that in most cases, patients died within four years. Rare patients, survivors, drew particular attention V.-YA., because, as he wrote later, 'the greatest interest for the physician to study the cases of recovery from incurable diseases'. Most struck his observation is that these rare cases of healing often occur after the patient carries the disease, accompanied by high fever, such as typhoid.
In 1887, Mr.. VA-I. suggested that psychosis can be treated with artificially induced fever. He first studied the effects of fever on the course of mental illness in general, but soon turned to the study of patients suffering from progressive paralysis. It was possible to use infection of malaria, which is accompanied by recurrent fever, but the VA-I. feared that the disease is too dangerous to call it special. Once in 1890. Robert Koch published data on the treatment of tuberculosis with tuberculin, V.-I. some mental patients infected with TB bacteria. However, the results disappointing, tk. tuberculous fever was not sufficiently severe and persistent in order to cure paralysis, in addition, tuberculin does not cure tuberculosis, and in some cases it could be dangerous.
In 1889, Mr.. VA-I. replaced by neurologist Richard von Krafft-Ebing in the post of professor of psychiatry at the University of Graz. Four years later he returned to Vienna for the post of director of psychiatric and neurological clinic. By this time he abandoned the method of contracting tuberculosis, and attempted to treat paralysis of various vaccines against diseases accompanied by fever. The results were protivorechevymi. Salvarsan (or arsfenamin), . developed by Paul Ehrlich in 1910, . was significantly more effective, . than previously existing methods of treatment of syphilis, . but this drug had no effect on the disease in an advanced stage with developing paralysis.,
. A few years later, when it was well established that malaria, especially very light (three days) form can be completely cured with quinine, V.-I
. continued its work with this disease. 'In 1917 - he said - I began to put into practice his proposal, made back in 1887, and brought in 9 patients with progressive paralysis of the three-day malaria parasite. The result exceeded expectations'. He found that by the early beginning of malaria therapy in 85% of cases of progressive paralysis recovery occurs, which was remarkable success. Over the next few years, V.-I. and his colleagues have suitable attenuated strains of malaria parasites that have worked the appropriate dose and identify the necessary duration of fever before treatment with quinine. Fortunately, the three-day malaria, caused by the way, was more sensitive to treatment with quinine than malaria, which arose after the mosquito bites. Opening of VA-I. represented a significant advance in the treatment of one of the most serious diseases in Western countries. The reason for this success is still cause for dispute. Malarial infection stimulates the immune system, and high temperatures can lead directly to the death of spirochetes. To support the latter hypothesis is the fact that the treatment of progressive paralysis patient can sometimes be successful when it is warming special electrical heater.
. Unusual for our day-malaria therapy was typical method of treatment between the beginning of the 20's and mid 40-ies.
. Obtaining purified penicillin Ernst B
. Cheney and Howard U. Florey (penicillin has been discovered in 1928. Alexander Fleming) has revolutionized the treatment of syphilis, and the end of 40-ies. malaria therapy and treatment of salvarsan of purely historical interest.
In 1927, Mr.. VA-I. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for his discovery of the therapeutic effect of malaria in the treatment of progressive paralysis'. In a speech at the presentation of William Vernstedt from the Karolinska Institute said that 'V.-I. provided us with a means for the effective treatment of serious illness, which has hitherto been considered resistant to all forms of therapy and incurable '.
A year after receiving the Nobel Prize VA-I. resigned from the psychiatric and neurological clinic, where he was director from 1893. In addition to research work, which occupied the rest of his life, he actively participated in the formulation of laws protecting the mentally ill.
In 1899. VA-I. married Anna Koch, they have a son and daughter. Who was considered a somewhat reserved and unsocial man, he was respected for his ability to be tolerant of different scientific views. Died V.-I. in Vienna on September 27, 1940
In addition to the Nobel Prize, V.-I. Cameron won. He was awarded the honorary title of University of Edinburgh (1935) and honorary degree, University of Vienna.