WAXMAN (Waksman), Selman A.( American microbiologist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1952)
Comments for WAXMAN (Waksman), Selman A.
Biography WAXMAN (Waksman), Selman A.
July 2, 1888, Mr.. - August 16, 1973
American microbiologist Selman Abraham Waksman was born in a small Ukrainian town Priluki. His mother, Fred (London) Waxman, was the owner of a department store, and his father, Jacob Waxman - landholder. The laws of Tsarist Russia, in. as a Jew had a limited opportunity to receive a good education, but his mother invited tutors, after school with which he was admitted to the Odessa High School. A year after his mother's death in 1910, Selman his first degree in. Dreaming to get a university education, in. emigrated to the United States, when collected enough money to travel.
After arriving in Philadelphia in 1911. He briefly stopped by his sisters, who owned a farm near Metyuchena (New Jersey). By this time in. already expressed interest in biology, and, as he later recalled, life on the farm instilled in him 'desire to find chemical and biological mechanisms of agriculture and its basic principles'. 'Near the ground, I decided to seek an answer to many questions about life cycles in nature, which began to get up in front of me' - he said.
To get answers to these questions,. enrolled in the College of Agriculture, which began studying the soil microbiology, Yves, 1915. received a Master of Science, in the same year he became a U.S. citizen. Throughout his academic career in. always been interested in the ecology of soil microbes and their interactions. His first scientific paper contained a list of various microorganisms and their combinations, including a large group of actinomycete. This order of bacteria that form branching cells, very similar to mushrooms. Even now, the role of actinomycetes in the formation and soil fertility is not fully installed, at a time when B. began the study of microbiology of soil microorganisms is practically not taken into account. The first experiments have convinced him that the actinomycetes are important, but it is not yet able to use biochemical methods to continue this work. After studying chemistry of enzymes as a research student at the University of California at Berkeley, in 1918. V. a Ph.D.. He returned to Rutgers, where he lectured at the beginning, and in 1925. was appointed associate professor in 1931. - Professor of Microbiology of the soil and in 1943. - Professor of Microbiology.
In Rutgers. became a leading expert in the field of soil microbiology, science, which from the simple accumulation of fragmentary observations into a scientific discipline. Being engaged in both teaching, training of scientific and popular publications, he continued research on the biochemistry of the soil and the relationships between organisms in the process of its formation.
In 1932, Mr.. American National Association to Stop TB called for in. to explore the process of destruction of TB bacilli in the soil. He concluded that for the process responsible microbes-antagonists. By 1939, Mr.. V. decided to launch a new program regarding the use of his research on soil microbiology for the treatment of human disease. 'I felt from my own experience, that fungi and actinomycetes can be much more effective sources of antibacterial agents than normal bacteria', - said he later. Another reason for its new research program was the second world war, . 'on the horizon, . - Said V., . - And dictate the need for new drugs to control various infections and epidemics, . that might arise. ",
. During the next four years in
. and his colleagues examined about 10 thousand. different soil microbes in the search for antibiotics, which could destroy the bacteria without harming human. In 1940. research team identified actinomycin, which proved highly toxic antibiotic. Two years later, scientists discovered streptotritsin - antibiotic, highly efficient against the causative agent of tuberculosis. In 1943, Mr.. followers discovered streptomycin in strains of actinomycetes isolated during work in. over the first scientific article.
After several years of testing and refinement in 1946. streptomycin was widely used. This drug has proved particularly valuable, tk. was effective against bacteria resistant to penicillin and sulfanilamides. Although taken by public health measures have reduced the incidence of tuberculosis, a disease before the appearance of streptomycin and the opening of the 50-ies. more effective antibiotics was a serious problem. Getting streptomycin led other researchers to the separation of soil microbes, especially actinomycetes, new varieties. The phenomenal increase in the number of these drugs, isolated since 1950, is largely the result of programs created by the efforts of B.
In 1952, Mr.. V. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective in the treatment of tuberculosis'. In a speech when giving the award Arvid Volgren of the Karolinska Institute said, . that 'in contrast to the discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming Professor, . which was largely due to the case, . receiving streptomycin was the result of long, . systematic and tireless work of a large group of scientists',
. Noticing that streptomycin has already saved thousands of lives, Volgren welcomed in. as 'one of the greatest benefactors of mankind'.
In 1916, Mr.. V. married Bertha Deborah Mitnik, who also emigrated from his native city Pryе?uki; they had a son. V. described as 'a wise, paternal caring person', which infect their colleagues and students enthusiastically. After retiring in 1958. retired from the University of Rutgers, he continued to write articles and give lectures about antibiotics in different cities of America, while remaining head of American scientists involved in soil microbiology. V. died August 16, 1973, Mr.. in Hayenise (Massachusetts).
In 1950, Mr.. V. became a knight of the Legion of Honor. He was awarded honorary doctoral degrees and Rutger University of Liege, he was a member of the National Academy of Sciences. National Research Society, the Society of American Bacteriologists, American scientific pochvovedcheskogo Society. American Chemical Society and the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.
|Stigenc for WAXMAN (Waksman), Selman A.
|The fate of a man)) sure that would have remained in the Soviet Ukraine, would not have achieved such success! Communists minds do not need!