Warburg (Warburg), Otto( German biochemist and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1931)
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Biography Warburg (Warburg), Otto
October 8, 1883, Mr.. - August 1, 1970
German biochemist Otto Heinrich Warburg was born in Freiburg, and was the only son of four children, Elizabeth (Gartner) and Emil Warburg. His father, Otto, professor of physics and a talented musician, was a descendant of a Jewish banker in the XVI. Warburg came from the family of renowned teachers, scholars, businessmen, artists, bankers and philanthropists. Mother in. was a Christian, whose ancestors were the administrators, judges and military. When he was 12 years old, the family moved to Berlin, where his father was appointed professor of physics at the local university. In young. received his primary education at the Friedrich Werder Gymnasium. In the house of Warburg were often musicians, artists and colleagues father, t.ch. Physics, Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Walter Nernst, an organic chemist Emil Fischer and physiologist Theodor Engelman.
In 1901, Mr.. V. became a student in chemistry University of Freiburg, and two years later transferred to the laboratory Fischer University of Berlin. In 1906, Mr.. He received a doctorate in chemistry at the University of Berlin with a thesis on the optical activity of peptides and their enzymatic hydrolysis. In the hope of making discoveries that could lead to treatment of cancer, he began studying medicine at Heidelberg University, working in the laboratory of Rudolf von KrцІll, a prominent physician. However, had collaborated with biochemist Otto Meyerhof and the biologist Julian Huxley. In the first independent study of VA, published in 1908, it was shown that oxygen consumption of sea urchin eggs after fertilization increased 6 times. In 1911, Mr.. He received his medical degree at Heidelberg University.
Over the next three years in. conducted research in this university and at the zoological station in Naples (Italy) - International Center for Biological Research. In 1913, Mr.. He was elected a member of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, the most famous scientific society of Germany, and was appointed head of the department and laboratory of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology in Berlin. These positions gave him complete independence in selecting the subject of research, administrative guidance only would hinder his work.
In 1914, when the First World War,. volunteered in the army and during the four years he served in the cavalry, was promoted to first lieutenant, was wounded on the Russian front and was awarded the Iron Cross. V. liked the military service, and he got me in the army of friends for life. In 1918, Mr.. Einstein wrote him a letter insisting on the return to classes in science: 'You are one of the most promising young physiologists of Germany ... Your life is constantly hanging by a thread ... Is not bezumieN Did you not find zamenyN 'heed the advice of Einstein and convinced that Germany was already out of the war,. returned to the laboratory in Berlin as professor. However, in wartime, he retained a love for riding and every morning before work for many years performed horseback riding.
Laboratory funds in. used mainly to purchase equipment for Physical and Chemical Research. In the laboratory staff consisted of several staff researchers, most of whom were qualified technicians, trained in. When he later asked why he did not wish to prepare future scientists,. retorted: 'Meyerhof, [Hugo] Hugo Theorell and [Hans] Hans Krebs were my students. Is it not said that I need to do this for the next pokoleniyaN 'Over fifty years of his scientific activity in. conducted research in three areas: the study of photosynthesis and enzymes of cancer cell oxidation reactions. They developed analytical methods, . including manometry, . used for measuring changes in gas pressure, . as, . example, . with cellular respiration and enzymatic reactions; spectrophotometry, . or the use of monochromatic light to measure the reaction rate and the number of metabolites, methods of tissue slices to determine the oxygen consumption without mechanical cell disruption.,
. In 1913, studying the oxygen consumption of liver cells, in
. discovered subcellular particles, which he described as granules, as it turned out later, they were mitochondria. He suggested that the oxidative enzymes for reactions in which the final products of decomposition of glucose oxidized further to carbon dioxide and water, were associated with these granules. Trying to identify the biochemical changes occurring during the transformation of normal cells (controlled growth) to cancer (uncontrolled growth), B. measured the rate of oxygen consumption, using tissue slices. He found that, although the normal and tumor cells consume the equivalent amount of oxygen, the latter in the presence of oxygen produce an abnormally large amount of lactic acid. (Glucose in the presence of oxygen breaks up lactic acid in most tissues.) He concluded, . that tumor cells often use anaerobic metabolism of glucose and the way that in fact normal cells are transformed into malignant because of lack of oxygen.,
. observed that normal aerobic respiration is inhibited by substances such as cyanide. He believed that such substances have been surrounding the secondary causes of cancer, and therefore insisted on growing their own food without using artificial fertilizers or pesticides. To avoid additional bleaching, used in public bakeries, he bake bread at home. Although later researchers found that the main cause of cancer are changes at the genetic level to 1967. V. the opinion that cancer arises as a result of violations of energy metabolism.
For work on the metabolism of tumor cells Nobel Committee in 1926. consider awarding him the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine, but in that year it was decided to award her a Danish physician and researcher Johannes Fibiger.
In the late 20-ies. V. opened the respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase, the catalytic oxidation reactions on the surface of granules, or mitochondria ( 'power plants' cells). Using the method of radiation physics, in which the solution of the enzyme - coenzyme illuminated with monochromatic light and the resulting sample absorption is analyzed, in. found that the active coenzyme (organic additional factor necessary for normal enzyme activity) of cytochrome oxidase is a porphyrin molecule with an iron atom, acting as a carrier of oxygen. This was the first identification of an active group of the enzyme.
In. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1931. 'for the discovery of the nature and mechanism of action of the respiratory enzyme'. Presenting the award in. for his "bold ideas ... penetrating mind and a rare perfection in the art of precise measurement ', . Eric Hammarsten of the Karolinska Institute said, . that this discovery 'was the first demonstration of an effective catalyst, . enzyme, . in a living organism, this identification is most important, . because it sheds light on the basic process of life-sustaining '.,
. By the beginning of 30-ies
. B., appointed in 1931. Director of the newly established Institute of Cell Physiology Kaiser Wilhelm (later Max Planck), isolated and crystallized 9 enzymes of anaerobic metabolic pathway of glucose. Spectrophotometric method developed by them was required for purification of enzymes. Together with colleague Walter Christian, he also isolated the two coenzyme: FAD (FAD) and nikotinamidadenindinukleotidfosfat (NADP), . involved in the transfer of hydrogen and electrons in the oxidation reactions, . yellow catalyzed by enzymes, . or flavoprotein,
. Opening of NADP, which contains niacin, vitamins identified function as coenzymes.
Taking up the photosynthesis, In. trying to determine how efficiently plants convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. Using quantitative methods developed in the laboratory of his father, and with the help of their new techniques in. revealed a correlation between the intensity of light in a photochemical reaction and the rate of photosynthesis. He found that the absorption of four light quanta leads to the development of one molecule of oxygen and the efficiency of transformation of electromagnetic energy into chemical is about 65%. The recently received studies have shown that the need of 10 or more quanta of light to produce a molecule of oxygen. Studying the recovery of nitrate in green plants,. also opened a carrier of electrons - ferredoxin.
During the Second World War in. remained in Germany and in spite of Jewish origin, had the opportunity to continue research on the etiology of cancer, to which Hitler felt a painful fear. Although he was not allowed to teach, in. doing research at the Institute of Cell Physiology until 1943, until the bombing of the Allied troops forced him to translate the laboratory in the estate, located 30 miles north of Berlin. At the end of the war the library and laboratory equipment in. were confiscated by the Soviet occupation authorities. He continued his studies in Berlin four years later. The previous restrictions were lifted for the VA, and he was able to publish annually about five articles on the results of the study of photosynthesis and cancer.
In. never been married, in 1919, Mr.. until the end of his life he was friends with Jacob Hayes, who was his constant companion and kept the household V., and later became the unofficial secretary and manager of the Institute. Horse riding has remained a favorite pastime VA until the age of 85 he fell down the stairs, a fracture of the femoral neck. Two years later, he developed deep vein thrombosis, and he died of a pulmonary embolism on Aug. 1, 1970
In. fond of history and literature. In addition to his work, he received great pleasure from music, particularly fond of works by Beethoven and Chopin. His conclusion from himself, when he interfered with work. Once he said importunate journalist: 'Professor Warburg impossible to interview: he died'. Friends and colleagues in. considered him a man of great charm and attentive to people.
Numerous honorary award. include the award to the Royal Society, an honorary degree from Oxford University, the Order of Merit of the FRG Government.